Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy and Pain: a Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMF) / rTMS Pain Bibliography

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy has proven itself very effective on pain. 6 decades of Eastern European research proved pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) highly effective in a diverse range of therapeutic applications with no side-effects or adverse reactions. Got pain?...pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is more than likely the answer to your prayers. As with other applications, the powers that be would like you to think that pharmacological substances are your best choice. We think before a doctor gets you hooked on pain pills, he should become an addict first so he can experience that himself. Along those lines, the published research is rife with red-herring studies that are either poorly designed or like the Cochrane database simply 'tools' of big-pharma.

Magnet therapy using permanent magnets has been used in pain management for centuries, particularly in Asia. Magnetic therapy using static-field magnets has been proven more effective than placebo for eons, though effects are not nearly as great or fast acting with pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, frequency specific microcurrent, TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation). The most successful peer reviewed static-magnetic field studies are being performed in Asia where duration of study is adequately long. Unlike pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, static magnetic field effects generally take weeks and months to manifest. 

Frequency specificity in pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) is more important than strength of the pulsed electromagnetic field. See MoreATP: The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging in Reverse. Frequency specificity is currently being investigated in the West after Eastern European research found particular frequency (10 Hz) more effective than others more than 3 decades ago. I caution against the use of pulsed radiofrequency as it actually destroys pain signal pathways (not repair them) and debilitates mitochondrion. Proper use of frequency specificity and duration of application won't just reduce pain, it will heal the cause of the pain, particularly where no nutritional deficiency. I have this year begun use of Organic Sulfur (one teaspoon per day in juice and seltzer) to assist the use of frequency specific (10 Hz) pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in nerve and tissue regeneration.  I have since January 2013 not taken ANY maintenance dose (previously 2-3 times per week) of joint formula and at 56 years old both shoulders, hips and knees feel terrific. Use of Organic Sulfur (not MSM) works phenomenally well in conjunction with pulsed electromagnetic field therapy and is key component to ALL types of tissue regeneration.

Links to Organic Sulfur information and my source. Adaquate sulfur intake allows body to generate its own glucosomine SULFATE and chondroitin SULFATE!...along with organ and other tissues. Hair grows much faster and nails need trimming twice per week. Evidently we are all sulfur deficient without supplemental sulfur.
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/09/17/stephanie-seneff-on-sulfur.aspx
http://www.voiceofeden.org/organic-sulfur/
http://www.naturodoc.com/sulfurstudy.htm (my Organic Sulfur source)

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is relatively new protocol for pain in the West, but over the last 4 decades has proven to be side-effect free and at least somewhat effective based upon the following studies which rarely utilize the most effective protocols (10 Hz relatively low amplitude over long duration treatment times). Rarely do peer-reviewed PEMF studies prove less effective than placebo;...when they do, frequency, amplitude and wave-form are questionable. In about 2008-09, pulsed electromagnetic field therapy applied locally to source of pain (so as to heal the source of pain) has yielded to more studies of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) and analgesic effect in the brain vs. application of pulsed electromagnetic field at the source of pain. A combination of both would be well served but we find not really necessary as you can eradicate pain signal source. Rebuild the tissue and rid the source of the pain.

EarthPulse™ pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is modeled after Eastern European's most effective and well tested frequency and wave-forms as one of its programs separate and apart from its FOUR SLEEP-MODES, in a very adaptable and portable system that is primarily designed for nighttime use, however can also be applied locally during the day and night. If it doesn't exceed your expectations (for any purpose), just return it for a full refund (less shipping charges).

If you've got fibromyalgia pain (or migraine headaches), PEMF is the answer to your prayers and we have very rarely seen it fail.

Neither Migraine nor Fibromyalgia and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been well researched in the peer-reviewed journals (but likewise we see an up-tick in research here) so you will only find a few references in those bibliographies. Hopefully as in case of Parkinson's, stroke and Alzheimer's this will increase over time. Another failure by the medical mainstream to pay attention, or a concerted effort to ignore the evidence. 

See also PEMF Fibromyalgia Pain Bibliography and PEMF Migraine Bibliography

EarthPulse™ US $599.00


Frequency Specific Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Therapy Research:

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research bibliographies and videos are for informational purposes only and not to be mistaken as promotional material for EarthPulse™ BioMagnetic Field Supplementation / Sleep on Command™

Over one thousand pulsed electromagnetic field therapy citations are contained in our research bibliographies; most are linked directly to PubMed a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

See also; Sandyk R, Anninos PA , Jacobson JI; three pioneers of electromagnetic field therapy to treat Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and epilepsy.

PEMF & Electromedicine History - Background:

introduction to electromedicine

brain wave entrainment

brain wave entrainment II

Electromagnetism & Life: Drs Robert O. Becker and Andrew Marino (full book pdf)

The Body Electric: the classic by Robert O. Becker, MD (full book pdf)

Garry Null - BioMagnetic Healing Book

Toxic EMF vs. Therapeutic PEMF: terrific video explaining why EMF is bad and PEMF is good

Dr. Oz Show Episode on Pulsed Magnetic Field Therapy (14 minutes longest version video)

Dr. Oz on PEMF Therapy (Sleep on Command™  out- performs every technology mentioned)

Dr. Oz: How Pulsed Magnetic Fields Heal (generally accurate but absent any discussion of mitochondrial effect)


PEMF Research By Effect:

Alzheimer's and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic fields

anti-aging and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

arthritis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

athletic performance enhancement / ergogenic effects of  pulsed electromagnetic field therapy

autism and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy / rTMS repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

bone / connective tissue regeneration and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

depression and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

EMF protection - electropollution research (your brain and your wireless technologies)

endometriosis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic fields

epilepsy and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

fibromyalgia and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

insomnia and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

migraine headache and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

multiple sclerosis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

nerve regeneration / spinal cord injury (SCI) & frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

neuropathy and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

osteoporosis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

pain and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

Parkinson's disease and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

sleep and radio frequency microwave telecommunications fields

Sleep on Command™ pulsed magnetic sleep-machine

stroke and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

thyroid and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

tinnitus and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS / TMS) research

wound healing and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

EarthPulse™ research conducted since 2002:

video evidence

client feedback forms

chronic lower back pain/sleep study

magnetic fields in the news


Pain and Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMF) & rTMS (we include some electric stimulation studies)

Electrotherapy for neck pain. (Red Herring Alert) utter bull****!
Kroeling P, Gross A, Graham N, Burnie SJ, Szeto G, Goldsmith CH, Haines T, Forget M.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 26;8:CD004251. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004251.pub5.

H-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for pain relief in patients with diabetic neuropathy.
Onesti E, Gabriele M, Cambieri C, Ceccanti M, Raccah R, Di Stefano G, Biasiotta A, Truini A, Zangen A, Inghilleri M.
Eur J Pain. 2013 Oct;17(9):1347-56. doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00320.x. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

Effect of single-session repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over the hand versus leg motor area on pain after spinal cord injury.
Jetté F, Côté I, Meziane HB, Mercier C.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Sep;27(7):636-43. doi: 10.1177/1545968313484810. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Efficacy of low frequency pulsed subsensory threshold electrical stimulation vs placebo on pain and physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis: systematic review with meta-analysis. (this review does not include studies giving the body PEMF and joint formula to rebuild the connective tissue...without adequate sulfur or joint formula the body cannot rebuild connective tissue with PEMF's alone)
Negm A, Lorbergs A, Macintyre NJ.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Sep;21(9):1281-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.06.015.

Efficacy and practical issues of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on chronic medically unexplained symptoms of pain.
Li CT, Su TP, Hsieh JC, Ho ST.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2013 Jun;51(2):81-7. doi: 10.1016/j.aat.2013.06.003. Epub 2013 Jul 16.

High-rate (10 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in migraine prophylaxis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Misra UK, Kalita J, Bhoi SK.
J Neurol. 2013 Aug 21. [Epub ahead of print]

Cortical excitability changes after high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for central poststroke pain.
Hosomi K, Kishima H, Oshino S, Hirata M, Tani N, Maruo T, Yorifuji S, Yoshimine T, Saitoh Y.
Pain. 2013 Aug;154(8):1352-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.04.017. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Non-invasive electromagnetic field therapy produces rapid and substantial pain reduction in early knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind pilot study.
Nelson FR, Zvirbulis R, Pilla AA.
Rheumatol Int. 2013 Aug;33(8):2169-73. doi: 10.1007/s00296-012-2366-8. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

Shaped magnetic field pulses by multi-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS at 10 Hz) differentially modulate anterior cingulate cortex responses and pain in volunteers and fibromyalgia patients.
Tzabazis A, Aparici CM, Rowbotham MC, Schneider MB, Etkin A, Yeomans DC.
Mol Pain. 2013 Jul 2;9(1):33. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparison between pharmacologic evaluation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced analgesia in poststroke pain patients.
Matsumura Y, Hirayama T, Yamamoto T.
Neuromodulation. 2013 Jul;16(4):349-54. doi: 10.1111/ner.12019. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of primary motor cortex for neuropathic pain: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled trial.
Hosomi K, Shimokawa T, Ikoma K, Nakamura Y, Sugiyama K, Ugawa Y, Uozumi T, Yamamoto T, Saitoh Y.
Pain. 2013 Jul;154(7):1065-72. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.03.016. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Relieving pain in rheumatology patients: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a developing approach.
Pérocheau D, Laroche F, Perrot S.
Joint Bone Spine. 2013 Jun 17. doi:pii: S1297-319X(13)00116-4. 10.1016/j.jbspin.2013.04.015. [Epub ahead of print]

A pilot functional MRI study of the effects of prefrontal rTMS on pain perception.
Martin L, Borckardt JJ, Reeves ST, Frohman H, Beam W, Nahas Z, Johnson K, Younger J, Madan A, Patterson D, George M.
Pain Med. 2013 Jul;14(7):999-1009. doi: 10.1111/pme.12129. Epub 2013 May 3.

Targeted therapies using electrical and magnetic neural stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain in spinal cord injury.
Moreno-Duarte I, Morse LR, Alam M, Bikson M, Zafonte R, Fregni F.
Neuroimage. 2013 May 30. doi:pii: S1053-8119(13)00599-5. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.097. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field on knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.
Ryang We S, Koog YH, Jeong KI, Wi H.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 May;52(5):815-24. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes063. Epub 2012 Apr 13. Review.

A novel magnetic stimulator increases experimental pain tolerance in healthy volunteers - a double-blind sham-controlled crossover study.
Kortekaas R, van Nierop LE, Baas VG, Konopka KH, Harbers M, van der Hoeven JH, van Wijhe M, Aleman A, Maurits NM.
PLoS One. 2013 Apr 19;8(4):e61926. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061926. Print 2013.

Is β endorphin related to migraine headache and its relief?
Misra UK, Kalita J, Tripathi GM, Bhoi SK.
Cephalalgia. 2013 Apr;33(5):316-22. doi: 10.1177/0333102412473372. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

Unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex does not affect cognition in patients with fibromyalgia.
Baudic S, Attal N, Mhalla A, Ciampi de Andrade D, Perrot S, Bouhassira D.
J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Jan;47(1):72-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.09.003. Epub 2012 Oct 15.

Motor cortex stimulation in refractory pelvic and perineal pain: report of two successful cases.
Louppe JM, Nguyen JP, Robert R, Buffenoir K, de Chauvigny E, Riant T, Péréon Y, Labat JJ, Nizard J.
Neurourol Urodyn. 2013 Jan;32(1):53-7. doi: 10.1002/nau.22269. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on fibromyalgia: a randomized sham-controlled trial with 1-mo follow-up.
Lee SJ, Kim DY, Chun MH, Kim YG.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Dec;91(12):1077-85. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e3182745a04.

Evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the management of patients with discogenic lumbar radiculopathy. Exposure to ELF- magnetic field promotes restoration of sensori-motor functions in adult rats with hemisection of thoracic spinal cord. (10 Hz would have yielded far better results than 50Hz)
Das S, Kumar S, Jain S, Avelev VD, Mathur R.
Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Sep;31(3):180-94. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2012.695706.

Motor cortex stimulation in the treatment of neuropathic pain.
Mandat T, Koziara H, Barszcz S, Rola R, Karliński M, Sliwińska A, Palfi S, Michalik R, Oziębło A, Kunicki J, Nauman P, Bonicki W.
Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2012 Sep-Oct;46(5):428-35.

Pulsed electromagnetic field during cast immobilization in postmenopausal women with Colles' fracture.
Lazović M, Kocić M, Dimitrijević L, Stanković I, Spalević M, Cirić T.
Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2012 Sep-Oct;140(9-10):619-24.

Non-invasive stimulation therapies for the treatment of refractory pain.
Nizard J, Lefaucheur JP, Helbert M, de Chauvigny E, Nguyen JP.
Discov Med. 2012 Jul;14(74):21-31. Review.

Brain stimulation in the treatment of chronic neuropathic and non-cancerous pain.
Plow EB, Pascual-Leone A, Machado A.
J Pain. 2012 May;13(5):411-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2012.02.001. Epub 2012 Apr 7. Review.

Neurostimulation methods in the treatment of chronic pain.
Rokyta R, Fricová J.
Physiol Res. 2012;61 Suppl 2:S23-31. Review.

[French guidelines on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): safety and therapeutic indications].
Lefaucheur JP, André-Obadia N, Poulet E, Devanne H, Haffen E, Londero A, Cretin B, Leroi AM, Radtchenko A, Saba G, Thai-Van H, Litré CF, Vercueil L, Bouhassira D, Ayache SS, Farhat WH, Zouari HG, Mylius V, Nicolier M, Garcia-Larrea L.
Neurophysiol Clin. 2011 Dec;41(5-6):221-95. doi: 10.1016/j.neucli.2011.10.062. Epub 2011 Nov 10. French

Long-term antalgic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex and serum beta-endorphin in patients with phantom pain.
Ahmed MA, Mohamed SA, Sayed D.
Neurol Res. 2011 Nov;33(9):953-8. doi: 10.1179/1743132811Y.0000000045.

Pain. 2011 Nov;152(11):2477-84. Epub 2011 Jul 20.
Ten sessions of adjunctive left prefrontal rTMS significantly reduces fibromyalgia pain: a randomized, controlled pilot study.
Short EB, Borckardt JJ, Anderson BS, Frohman H, Beam W, Reeves ST, George MS.
Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President St., PO Box 250861, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. shorteb@musc.edu

Brain Stimul. 2011 Oct;4(4):210-217.e1. Epub 2010 Dec 17.
rTMS over the cerebellum modulates temperature detection and pain thresholds through peripheral mechanisms.
Zunhammer M, Busch V, Griesbach F, Landgrebe M, Hajak G, Langguth B.
Source
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, University of Regensburg, Germany.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Sep 21. doi: 10.1002/bem.20703. [Epub ahead of print]
Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): A systematic literature review.
Hug K, Röösli M.
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1447-8. Epub 2011 Mar 29.
Is rTMS a therapeutic option in chronic pain syndrome? Insights from the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Lefaucheur JP.
Source
Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Est Créteil, Service de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris, 51 Avenue du Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.

Pain. 2011 Jul;152(7):1478-85. Epub 2011 Mar 11.
Long-term maintenance of the analgesic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in fibromyalgia.
Mhalla A, Baudic S, Ciampi de Andrade D, Gautron M, Perrot S, Teixeira MJ, Attal N, Bouhassira D.
Source
INSERM U-987, CHU Ambroise Paré, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt F-92100, France.

Case Report Med. 2011;2011:130751. Epub 2011 May 11.
Phantom limb pain: low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in unaffected hemisphere.
Di Rollo A, Pallanti S.
Source
Department of Psychiatry, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy.

J Headache Pain. 2011 Apr;12(2):185-91. Epub 2011 Feb 25.
Modulation of pain perception by transcranial magnetic stimulation of left prefrontal cortex.
Brighina F, De Tommaso M, Giglia F, Scalia S, Cosentino G, Puma A, Panetta M, Giglia G, Fierro B.
Source
Dip di Biomedicine Sperimentali e Neuroscienze Cliniche (BioNeC), University of Palermo, Via G. La Loggia, 1, 90129 Palermo, Italy.
Pain. 2011 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-term maintenance of the analgesic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in fibromyalgia.
Mhalla A, Baudic S, de Andrade DC, Gautron M, Perrot S, Teixeira MJ, Attal N, Bouhassira D.
In conclusion, these results suggest that TMS may be a valuable and safe new therapeutic option in patients with fibromyalgia. The analgesic effects induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex can be maintained over 6months in patients with fibromyalgia, using monthly stimulation.

Pain. 2011 Feb;152(2):320-6. Epub 2010 Dec 10.
Neuropharmacological basis of rTMS-induced analgesia: the role of endogenous opioids.
de Andrade DC, Mhalla A, Adam F, Texeira MJ, Bouhassira D.
Source
Centre d'Evaluation et de Traitement de la Douleur, Ambroise Paré, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

Case Report Med. 2011;2011:130751. Epub 2011 May 11.
Phantom limb pain: low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in unaffected hemisphere.
Di Rollo A, Pallanti S.
Source
Department of Psychiatry, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy.

Eur J Pain. 2011 Jan;15(1):1-2. Epub 2010 Nov 20.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a tool for the treatment of chronic visceral pain.
Villanueva L.

Eur J Pain. 2011 Jan;15(1):53-60. Epub 2010 Sep 6.
Clinical effects and brain metabolic correlates in non-invasive cortical neuromodulation for visceral pain.
Fregni F, Potvin K, Dasilva D, Wang X, Lenkinski RE, Freedman SD, Pascual-Leone A.
Source
Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA

J Pain. 2010 Nov;11(11):1203-10. Epub 2010 Apr 28.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is efficacious as an add-on to pharmacological therapy in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I.
Picarelli H, Teixeira MJ, de Andrade DC, Myczkowski ML, Luvisotto TB, Yeng LT, Fonoff ET, Pridmore S, Marcolin MA.
Source
Clinic of Pain, Department of Neurology, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Clin Neurophysiol. 2010 Jun;121(6):895-901. Epub 2010 Jan 25.
Motor cortex rTMS reduces acute pain provoked by laser stimulation in patients with chronic neuropathic pain.
Lefaucheur JP, Jarry G, Drouot X, Ménard-Lefaucheur I, Keravel Y, Nguyen JP.
Source
Service de Physiologie - Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2010 Jun;24(5):435-41. Epub 2010 Jan 6.
Reduction of spasticity with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with spinal cord injury.
Kumru H, Murillo N, Samso JV, Valls-Sole J, Edwards D, Pelayo R, Valero-Cabre A, Tormos JM, Pascual-Leone A.
Source
Hospital de Neurorehabilitación Institut Guttmann, Barcelona, Spain

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Nov 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on IL-1beta and Post Operative Pain: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study in Breast Reduction Patients.
Rohde C, Chiang A, Adipoju O, Casper D, Pilla AA.
Source 1Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. 2Neurosurgery Laboratory, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY. 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY. 4Department of Orthopedics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2009 Apr;29(2):56-61. in this study hundreds of hertz worked; but not healthy for your neuro system!
Evaluation of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field in the management of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.
Graak V, Chaudhary S, Bal BS, Sandhu JS.
Source
Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Aesthet Surg J. 2009 Mar-Apr;29(2):135-43.
Evidence-based use of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in clinical plastic surgery.
Strauch B, Herman C, Dabb R, Ignarro LJ, Pilla AA.
Source
Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

Brain. 2007 Oct;130(Pt 10):2661-70. Epub 2007 Sep 14. Links
Effects of unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex on chronic widespread pain in fibromyalgia.
Passard A, Attal N, Benadhira R, Brasseur L, Saba G, Sichere P, Perrot S, Januel D, Bouhassira D.
INSERM U-792, Boulogne-Billancourt F-92100 France.
Non-invasive unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex induces analgesic effects in focal chronic pain syndromes, probably by modifying central pain modulatory systems. Neuroimaging studies have shown bilateral activation of a large number of structures, including some of those involved in pain processing, suggesting that such stimulation may induce generalized analgesic effects. We also assessed the effects of rTMS on the pressure pain threshold at tender points ipsi- and contralateral to stimulation.  Active rTMS significantly reduced pain and improved several aspects of quality of life (including fatigue, morning tiredness, general activity, walking and sleep) for up to 2 weeks after treatment had ended. The analgesic effects were observed from the fifth stimulation onwards and were not related to changes in mood or anxiety. The effects of rTMS were more long-lasting for affective than for sensory pain, suggesting differential effects on brain structures involved in pain perception. Only few minor and transient side effects were reported during the stimulation period. Our data indicate that unilateral rTMS of the motor cortex induces a long-lasting decrease in chronic widespread pain and may therefore constitute an effective alternative analgesic treatment for fibromyalgia.


Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007 Feb 28; [Epub ahead of print]  Links
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on patients' recovery after arthroscopic surgery: prospective, randomized and double-blind study.
"Sacro Cuore Don Calabria" Hospital, Via don A. Sempreboni 5, 37024, Negrar (Vr), Italy.
Severe joint inflammation following trauma, arthroscopic surgery or infection can damage articular cartilage, thus every effort should be made to protect cartilage from the catabolic effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulate cartilage anabolic activities. Previous pre-clinical studies have shown that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) can protect articular cartilage from the catabolic effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and prevent its degeneration, finally resulting in chondroprotection. These findings provide the rational to support the study of the effect of PEMFs in humans after arthroscopic surgery. The purpose of this pilot, randomized, prospective and double-blind study was to evaluate the effects of PEMFs in patients undergoing arthroscopic treatment of knee cartilage. Patients with knee pain were recruited and treated by arthroscopy with chondroabrasion and/or perforations and/or radiofrequencies. All patients were instructed to use PEMFs for 90 days, 6 h per day. Patients were interviewed for the long-term outcome 3 years after arthroscopic surgery. Thirty-one patients completed the treatment. KOOS values at 45 and 90 days were higher in the active group and the difference was significant at 90 days (P < 0.05). The percentage of patients who used NSAIDs was 26% in the active group and 75% in the control group (P = 0.015). At 3 years follow-up, the number of patients who completely recovered was higher in the active group compared to the control group (P < 0.05).

Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2007 Jan 2; [Epub ahead of print]  Links
[Are SPA therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy effective for chronic neck pain? Randomised clinical trial First part: clinical evaluation.]
Centre de recherche rhumatologique et thermal, BP 234, 73102 Aix-les-Bains cedex, France.

<>Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Jan;26(1):69-74. Epub 2006 Apr 22.
Effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in lateral epicondylitis.
Trakya University Medical Faculty Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Edirne, Turkey.

<>!Neurology. 2006 Dec 12;67(11):1998-2004 !
<>Somatotopic organization of the analgesic effects of motor cortex rTMS in neuropathic pain.
Lefaucheur JP, Hatem S, Nineb A, Ménard-Lefaucheur I, Wendling S, Keravel Y, Nguyen JP.
Department of Physiology, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, INSERM U 421, IM3 Faculté de Médecine de Créteil, France. jean-pascal.
BACKGROUND: Motor cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was found to relieve chronic neuropathic pain, but the optimal parameters of stimulation remain to be determined, including the site of stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between cortical stimulation site and pain site regarding the analgesic efficacy of rTMS of motor cortex in chronic neuropathic pain. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with unilateral chronic neuropathic pain located at the face or the hand were enrolled. Motor cortex rTMS was applied at 10 Hz over the area corresponding to the face, hand, or arm of the painful side, whatever pain location. Analgesic effects were daily assessed on visual analogue scale for the week that followed each rTMS session. RESULTS: All types of rTMS session, whatever the target, significantly relieved pain, compared with baseline. However, analgesic effects were significantly better after hand than face area stimulation in patients with facial pain and after face than hand or arm area stimulation in patients with hand pain. CONCLUSION: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was more effective for pain relief when the stimulation was applied to an area adjacent to the cortical representation of the painful zone rather than to the motor cortical area corresponding to the painful zone itself. This result contradicts the somatotopic efficacy observed for chronic epidural motor cortex stimulation with surgically implanted electrodes.

Neurology. 2006 Nov 14;67(9):1568-74. Links
Motor cortex rTMS restores defective intracortical inhibition in chronic neuropathic pain.
Lefaucheur JP, Drouot X, Ménard-Lefaucheur I, Keravel Y, Nguyen JP.
Department of Physiology, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, INSERM U 421, IM3-Faculté de Médecine de Créteil, Créteil, France. jean-pascal.
OBJECTIVE: To assess cortical excitability changes in patients with chronic neuropathic pain at baseline and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex. METHODS: In 22 patients with unilateral hand pain of various neurologic origins and 22 age-matched healthy controls, we studied the following parameters of cortical excitability: motor threshold at rest, motor evoked potential amplitude ratio at two intensities, cortical silent period (CSP), and intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation. We compared these parameters between healthy subjects and patients at baseline. We also studied excitability changes in the motor cortex corresponding to the painful hand of patients after active or sham rTMS of this cortical region at 1 or 10 Hz. RESULTS: At baseline, CSP was shortened for the both hemispheres of patients vs healthy subjects, in correlation with pain score, while ICI was reduced only for the motor cortex corresponding to the painful hand. Regarding rTMS effects, the single significant change was ICI increase in the motor cortex corresponding to the painful hand, after active 10-Hz rTMS, in correlation with pain relief. CONCLUSION: Chronic neuropathic pain was associated with motor cortex disinhibition, suggesting impaired GABAergic neurotransmission related to some aspects of pain or to underlying sensory or motor disturbances. The analgesic effects produced by motor cortex stimulation could result, at least partly, from the restoration of defective intracortical inhibitory processes.

J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Nov;88 Suppl 3:56-60.  Links
Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields in osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Advanced Therapies, Orthopaedic Clinic, University of Ferrara, Corso della Giovecca, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5):42-9. Links
Regenerative effects of pulsed magnetic field on injured peripheral nerves.
Department of Biophysics, University of Cukurova School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey.
Previous studies confirm that pulsed magnetic field (PMF) accelerates functional recovery after a nerve crush lesion. The contention that PMF enhances the regeneration is still controversial, however. The influence of a new PMF application protocol (trained PMF) on nerve regeneration was studied in a model of crush injury of the sciatic nerve of rats. To determine if exposure to PMF influences regeneration, we used electrophysiological recordings and ultrastructural examinations. After the measurements of conduction velocity, the sucrose-gap method was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs) from sciatic nerves. PMF treatment during the 38 days following the crush injury enhanced the regeneration. Although the axonal ultrastructures were generally normal, slight to moderate myelin sheath degeneration was noted at the lesion site. PMF application for 38 days accelerated nerve conduction velocity, increased CAP amplitude and decreased the time to peak of the CAP. Furthermore, corrective effects of PMF on. the abnormal characteristics of sensory nerve fibers were determined. Consequently, long-periodic trained-PMF may promote both morphological and electrophysiological properties of the injured nerves. In addition, corrective effects of PMF on sensory fibers may be considered an important finding for neuropathic pain therapy.

Pain. 2006 Jul;123(1-2):187-92. Epub 2006 Apr 17.Click here to read Links
Changes to somatosensory detection and pain thresholds following high frequency repetitive TMS of the motor cortex in individuals suffering from chronic pain.
School of Psychology, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 30, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia. Research has shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results in a transient reduction in the experience of chronic pain. The present research aimed to investigate whether a single session of high frequency TMS is able to change the sensory thresholds of individuals suffering from chronic pain. Detection and pain thresholds for cold and heat sensations were measured before and after 20Hz repetitive TMS (rTMS) administered over the motor cortex. A significant decrease in temperature for cold detection and pain thresholds and a significant increase in temperature for heat pain thresholds were evident following a single session of rTMS. In contrast, no change in detection and pain thresholds was obtained following sham rTMS. The finding that rTMS can have a direct effect on sensory thresholds in individuals suffering from chronic pain has implications for the therapeutic use of rTMS in the relief of chronic pain.

Pain Res Manag. 2006 Summer;11(2):85-90.
Exposure to a specific pulsed low-frequency magnetic field: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of effects on pain ratings in rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients.

Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph's Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2.

OBJECTIVE: The effect of specific PEMF exposure on pain in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=13; mean age 52 years) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients (n=18; mean age 51 years) who received either the PEMF or sham exposure treatment. RESULTS: A repeated measures analysis revealed a significant pre-post-testing by condition interaction for the MPQ Pain Rating Index total for the RA patients, F(1,11)=5.09, P<0.05, estimate of effect size = 0.32, power = 0.54. A significant pre-post-effect for the same variable was present for the FM patients, F(1,15)=16.2, P<0.01, estimate of effect size = 0.52, power =0.96. Similar findings were found for MPQ subcomponents and the VAS (pain). CONCLUSION: These findings provide some initial support for the use of PEMF exposure in reducing pain in chronic pain populations and warrants continued investigation into the use of PEMF exposure for short-term pain relief.

Neurophysiol Clin. 2006 May-Jun;36(3):117-24. Epub 2006 Aug 23. Links
The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in chronic neuropathic pain.
Lefaucheur JP.
Service de physiologie, explorations fonctionnelles, hôpital Henri-Mondor, Assistance-publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 51, avenue du Marechal-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 94010 Créteil, France.


Pain. 2006 May;122(1-2):197-209. Epub 2006 Mar 27.
A sham-controlled, phase II trial of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of central pain in traumatic spinal cord injury. Fregni F, Boggio PS, Lima MC, Ferreira MJ, Wagner T, Rigonatti SP, Castro AW, Souza DR, Riberto M, Freedman SD, Nitsche MA, Pascual-Leone A.  Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.


Past evidence has shown that motor cortical stimulation with invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation is effective to relieve central pain. Here we aimed to study the effects of another, very safe technique of non-invasive brain stimulation--transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)--on pain control in patients with central pain due to traumatic spinal cord injury. There was a significant pain improvement after active anodal stimulation of the motor cortex, but not after sham stimulation. These results were not confounded by depression or anxiety changes. Furthermore, cognitive performance was not significantly changed throughout the trial in both treatment groups. The results of our study suggest that this new approach of cortical stimulation can be effective to control pain in patients with spinal cord lesion. We discuss potential mechanisms for pain amelioration after tDCS, such as a secondary modulation of thalamic nuclei activity.

Pain. 2006 May;122(1-2):22-7. Epub 2006 Feb 21.
Comment in: * Pain. 2006 May;122(1-2):11-3.
Reduction of intractable deafferentation pain by navigation-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex. Hirayama A, Saitoh Y, Kishima H, Shimokawa T, Oshino S, Hirata M, Kato A, Yoshimine T. Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.

The precentral gyrus (M1) (TOP OF THE HEAD) is a representative target for electrical stimulation therapy of pain. To date, few researchers have investigated whether pain relief is possible by stimulation of cortical areas other than M1. According to recent reports, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can provide an effect similar to that of electrical stimulation. With this in mind, we therefore examined several cortical areas as stimulation targets using a navigation-guided rTMS and compared the effects of the different targets on pain. Twenty patients with intractable deafferentation pain received rTMS of M1, the postcentral gyrus (S1), premotor area (preM), and supplementary motor area (SMA). Each target was stimulated with ten trains of 10-s 5-Hz TMS pulses, with 50-s intervals in between trains. Intensities were adjusted to 90% of resting motor thresholds. Thus, a total of 500 stimuli were applied. Sham stimulations were undertaken at random. The effect of rTMS on pain was rated by patients using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Ten of the 20 patients (50%) indicated that stimulation of M1, but not other areas, provided significant and beneficial pain relief (p<0.01). Results indicated a statistically significant effect lasting for 3 hours after the stimulation of M1 (p<0.05). Stimulation of other targets was not effective. The M1 was the sole target for treating intractable pain with rTMS, in spite of the fact that M1, S1, preM, and SMA are located adjacently.

Pain Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;7(2):115-8.
Slow-frequency rTMS reduces fibromyalgia pain. Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, W11A, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that fibromyalgia (FM) is a centrally mediated pain disorder. Antidepressants, including electroconvulsive therapy, provide some symptomatic relief in FM and other pain disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new antidepressant treatment, which may also be useful in treating chronic pain. All had improvement in pain, and two had complete resolution of pain. Only one of the four subjects had an antidepressant response. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest a possible role for rTMS in treating FM.

J Int Med Res. 2006 Mar-Apr;34(2):160-7. Efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic therapy for chronic lower back pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial studied the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic therapy (PEMT) in patients with chronic lower back pain. Active PEMT (n = 17) or placebo treatment (n = 19) was performed three times a week for 3 weeks. The mean revised Oswestry disability percentage after 4 weeks was significantly improved from the baseline value in the PEMT group, whereas there were no significant differences in the placebo group. In conclusion, PEMT reduced pain and disability and appears to be a potentially useful therapeutic tool for the conservative management of chronic lower back pain.

Clin Rheumatol. 2006 Apr 22;
Effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in lateral epicondylitis.Trakya University Medical Faculty Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Edirne, Turkey,

We aimed to investigate the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in lateral epicondylitis comparing the modality with sham PEMF and local steroid injection. Sixty patients equally distributed into three groups as follows: Group I received PEMF, Group II sham PEMF, and Group III a corticosteroid + anesthetic agent injection. Group I patients had lower pain during rest, activity and nighttime than Group III at third month. PEMF seems to reduce lateral epicondylitis pain better than sham PEMF.

Rheumatol Int. 2006 Feb;26(4):320-4.
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of cervical osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Education and Research Hospital, Turk ocagi S No: 3 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) on pain, range of motion (ROM) and functional status in patients with cervical osteoarthritis (COA) via 30 min sessions, twice a day for 3 weeks. Pain levels in the PEMF group decreased significantly after therapy (p<0.001), but no change was observed in the placebo group. The active ROM, paravertebral muscle spasm and neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) scores improved significantly after PEMF therapy (p<0.001) but no change was observed in the sham group. The results of this study are promising, in that PEMF treatment may offer a potential therapeutic adjunct to current COA therapies in the future.

Cephalalgia. 2006 Feb;26(2):143-9.
Induction of long-lasting changes of visual cortex excitability by five daily sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in healthy volunteers and migraine patients. Fumal A, Coppola G, Bohotin V, Gerardy PY, Seidel L, Donneau AF, Vandenheede M, Maertens de Noordhout A, Schoenen J. Department of Neurology, University of Liege, Belgium.

We have shown that in healthy volunteers (HV) one session of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the visual cortex induces dishabituation of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) on average for 30 min, while in migraineurs one session of 10 Hz rTMS replaces the abnormal VEP potentiation by a normal habituation for 9 min. In the present study, we investigated whether repeated rTMS sessions (1 Hz in eight HV; 10 Hz in eight migraineurs) on 5 consecutive days can modify VEPs for longer periods. Daily rTMS can thus induce long-lasting changes in cortical excitability and VEP habituation pattern. Whether this effect may be useful in preventative migraine therapy remains to be determined.

J Rehabil Med. 2005 Nov;37(6):372-7. Ice and pulsed electromagnetic field to reduce pain and swelling after distal radius fractures. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative effectiveness of ice therapy and/or pulsed electromagnetic field in reducing pain and swelling after the immobilization period following a distal radius fracture. CONCLUSION: The addition of pulsed electromagnetic field to ice therapy produces better overall treatment outcomes than ice alone, or pulsed electromagnetic field alone in pain reduction and range of joint motion in ulnar deviation and flexion for a distal radius fracture after an immobilization period of 6 weeks.

Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2005 Sep-Oct;143(5):544-50.
[Adjuvant treatment of knee osteoarthritis with weak pulsing magnetic fields. Results of a placebo-controlled trial prospective clinical trial] Fischer G, Pelka RB, Barovic J.Institut fur Hygiene an der Universitat Graz, Osterreich.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was the objective control of the therapeutic effect of weak pulsing magnetic fields (series of periodically repeating square pulses increasing according to an e-function, frequencies of 10, 20, 30, and 200-300 Hz) by means of a double-blind study on osteoarthritis of the knee. Measured parameters were the Knee Society score, pain sensation, blood count and cardiocirculatory values. METHODS: 36 placebo and 35 verum test persons (all with a knee gap smaller than 3 mm) were exposed daily for 16 minutes over 6 weeks to a low frequency magnetic field (flux densities increasing gradually from 3.4 up to 13.6 microT) encompassing the whole body. The last data collection was made 4 weeks after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Principally, the statistically ensured results exclusively favour the used magnetic field therapy; by far the greatest number of at least significant differences was found at the end of the whole treatment, lasting 6 weeks. In particular, it is striking that all 4 questioned pain scales showed at least significant improvements in favour of the verum collective; also the walking distance was increased. As another confirmed fact, even after 4 weeks without therapy the persistence of several functional and analgesic effects could be documented. CONCLUSIONS: Predominantly, on the one hand, pain relief in osteoarthritis patients was confirmed by a double-blind trial, on the other hand, increases in mobility could be proven. Furthermore, we describe mainly the modes of action of low frequency magnetic energy and 3 physical concepts that are seen as the connecting link between electromagnetic fields coupled into connective tissue and biochemical repair and growth processes in bones and cartilage. Proceeding from the results of this and preceding studies, one has to consider seriously whether this kind of magnetic field application should not be employed as cost-effective and side effect-free alternative or adjuvant form of therapy in the field of orthopaedic disorders.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Aug;59(7):388-94.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on articular hyaline cartilage: review of experimental and clinical studies. Experimental Surgery Department, Research Institute Codivilla-Putti-Rizzoli, Orthopedic Institute, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disorder of the musculoskeletal system and is a consequence of mechanical and biological events that destabilize tissue homeostasis in articular joints. Controlling chondrocyte death and apoptosis, function, response to anabolic and catabolic stimuli, matrix synthesis or degradation and inflammation is the most important target of potential chondroprotective treatment, aimed to retard or stabilize the progression of OA. Although many drugs or substances have been recently introduced for the treatment of OA, the majority of them do not modify the complex pathological processes that occur in these tissues. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have a number of well-documented physiological effects on cells and tissues including the upregulation of gene expression of members of the transforming growth factor beta super family, the increase in glycosaminoglycan levels, and an anti-inflammatory action. In the present paper some recent experimental in vitro and in vivo data on the effect of PEMFs on articular cartilage were reviewed. These data strongly support the clinical use of PEMFs in OA patients.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;76(6):833-8.    Related Articles, Links
Longlasting antalgic effects of daily sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in central and peripheral neuropathic pain. Khedr EM, Kotb H, Kamel NF, Ahmed MA, Sadek R, Rothwell JC. Department of Neurology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over motor cortex had been reported to produce short term relief of some types of chronic pain. The present study investigated whether five consecutive days of rTMS would lead to longer lasting pain relief in unilateral chronic intractable neuropathic pain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty eight patients with therapy resistant chronic unilateral pain syndromes (24 each with trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) and post-stroke pain syndrome (PSP)) participated. Fourteen from each group received 10 minutes real rTMS over the hand area of motor cortex (20 Hz, 10x10 s trains, intensity 80% of motor threshold) every day for five consecutive days. The remaining patients received sham stimulation. CONCLUSION: These results confirm that five daily sessions of rTMS over motor cortex can produce longlasting pain relief in patients with TGN or PSP.

J Neurol Sci. 2004 Dec 15;227(1):67-71.
rTMS of the prefrontal cortex in the treatment of chronic migraine: a pilot study. Neurophysiological Unit, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. A recent fMRI study showed that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) exerts an inhibitory control on pain pathways in humans. We investigated whether high-frequency rTMS over left DLPFC could ameliorate chronic migraine. Treatment consisted of 12 rTMS sessions, delivered in alternate days over left DLPFC. Sham rTMS was used as placebo. Eleven patients were randomly assigned to the rTMS (n=6) or to the placebo (n=5) treatment. Measures of attack frequency, headache index, number of abortive medications (outcome measures) were recorded in the month before, during and in the month after treatment. Subjects treated by rTMS showed a significant reduction of the outcome measures during and in the month after the treatment as compared to the month before treatment. No significant differences in the outcome measures were observed in the placebo group. High-frequency rTMS over left DLPFC was able to ameliorate chronic migraine. This is in agreement with the suggested role of DLPFC in pain control.


Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2004 Mar;18(1):42-6.
Pulsed magnetic field therapy in refractory neuropathic pain secondary to peripheral neuropathy: electrodiagnostic parameters--pilot study.New York Medical College, Briarcliff Manor, New York 10510, USA.

CONTEXT: Neuropathic pain (NP) from peripheral neuropathy (PN) arises from ectopic firing of unmyelinated C-fibers with accumulation of sodium and calcium channels. Because pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) safely induce extremely low frequency (ELF) quasirectangular currents that can depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize neurons, it was hypothesized that directing this energy into the sole of one foot could potentially modulate neuropathic pain. DESIGN/SETTING/PATIENTS: 24 consecutive patients with refractory and symptomatic PN from diabetes, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), pernicious anemia, mercury poisoning, paraneoplastic syndrome, tarsal tunnel, and idiopathic sensory neuropathy were enrolled in this nonplacebo pilot study. The most symptomatic foot received therapy. INTERVENTION: Noninvasive pulsed signal therapy generates a unidirectional quasirectangular waveform with strength about 20 gauss and a frequency about 30 Hz into the soles of the feet for 9 consecutive 1-h treatments (excluding weekends). The most symptomatic foot of each patient was treated. RESULTS: Mean pain scores decreased 21% from baseline to end of treatment (P=0.19) but with 49% reduction of pain scores from baseline to end of follow-up (P<0.01). Of this group, self-reported PGIC was improved 67% (n=10) and no change was 33% (n=5). There were no adverse events or safety issues. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot data demonstrate that directing PEMF to the feet can provide unexpected shortterm analgesic effects in more than 50% of individuals. The role of placebo is not known and was not tested. The precise mechanism is unclear yet suggests that severe and advanced cases are more magnetically sensitive.

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Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jan 2;354(1):30-3.     Related Articles, Links
 
Analgesic and behavioral effects of a 100 microT specific pulsed extremely low frequency magnetic field on control and morphine treated CF-1 mice.
Shupak NM, Hensel JM, Cross-Mellor SK, Kavaliers M, Prato FS, Thomas AW.
Bioelectromagnetics, Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Joseph's Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, Ont. N6A 4V2, Canada.
Diverse studies have shown that magnetic fields can affect behavioral and physiological functions. Previously, we have shown that sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic fields and specific pulsed magnetic fields (Cnps) can produce alterations in the analgesia-related behavior of the land snail. Here, we have extended these studies to show an induction of analgesia in mice equivalent to a moderate dose of morphine (5 mg/kg), and the effect of both Cnp exposure and morphine injection on some open-field activity. Cnp exposure was found to prolong the response latency to a nociceptive thermal stimulus (hot plate). Cnp+morphine offset the increased movement activity found with morphine alone. These results suggest that pulsed magnetic fields can induce analgesic behavior in mice without the side effects often associated with opiates like morphine.
PMID: 14698475 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;75(4):612-6.
Neurogenic pain relief by repetitive transcranial magnetic cortical stimulation depends on the origin and the site of pain.
Lefaucheur JP, Drouot X, Menard-Lefaucheur I, Zerah F, Bendib B, Cesaro P, Keravel Y, Nguyen JP.
Service de Physiologie-Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hopital Henri Mondor, 51 Avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010 Creteil, France.

Neurophysiol Clin. 2004 Apr;34(2):91-5.
Neuropathic pain controlled for more than a year by monthly sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. Lefaucheur JP, Drouot X, Menard-Lefaucheur I, Nguyen JP.
Service de Physiologie-Explorations Fonctionnelles, CHU Hopital Henri Mondor, 51 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, Creteil 94010, France.

Pain. 2004 Jan;107(1-2):107-15.
Effects of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on acute pain induced by capsaicin.
Tamura Y, Okabe S, Ohnishi T, N Saito D, Arai N, Mochio S, Inoue K, Ugawa Y.
Department of Neurology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan.

The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) on acute pain induced by intradermal capsaicin injection and to elucidate its mechanisms by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We conclude that rTMS over M1 should have beneficial effects on acute pain, and its effects must be caused by functional changes of MPFC and caudal ACC.

Neurology. 2004 Jun 22;62(12):2176-81.
Facilitation of A[delta]-fiber-mediated acute pain by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Tamura Y, Hoshiyama M, Inui K, Nakata H, Qiu Y, Ugawa Y, Inoue K, Kakigi R.
Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan. ytamura@nips.ac.jp

BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex modulates acute and chronic pain perception. The authors previously showed that rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) inhibited capsaicin-induced acute pain ascending through C-fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Together with the authors' previous study on C-fiber pain, this facilitatory effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on Adelta-fiber-mediated further strengthens the notion of a relationship between repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over M1 and pain perception.

Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2003 Oct;33(8):745-52. 
The use of pulsed electromagnetic fields with complex modulation in the treatment of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy.
Musaev AV, Guseinova SG, Imamverdieva SS.
Science Research Institute of Medical Rehabilitation, Baku, Azerbaidzhan.
Clinical and electroneuromyographic studies were performed in 121 patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) before and after courses of treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields with complex modulation (PEMF-CM) at different frequencies (100 and 10 Hz).PEMF-CM at 10 Hz was found to have therapeutic efficacy, especially in the initial stages of DPN and in patients with diabetes mellitus for up to 10 years.
PMID: 14635988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):38-48.
Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and quality of life: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial.
Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Richards TL, Kramer ED.
Energy Medicine Developments, (North America), Inc., Burke, Va., USA.
CONTEXT: There is a growing literature on the biological and clinical effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields. Some studies suggest that electromagnetic therapies may be useful in the treatment of chronic illnesses. This study is a follow-up to a placebo controlled pilot study in which multiple sclerosis (MS) patients exposed to weak, extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields showed significant improvements on a composite symptom measure. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this randomized, double-bind, placebo controlled trial is consistent with results from smaller studies suggesting that exposure to pulsing, weak electromagnetic fields can alleviate symptoms of MS. The clinical effects were small, however, and need to be replicated. Additional research is also needed to examine the possibility that ambulatory patients and patients taking interferons for their MS may be most responsive to this kind of treatment.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Multicenter Study
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 12868251 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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5: Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:466-70.     Related Articles, Links

Autoradiographic evaluation of electromagnetic field effects on serotonin (5HT1A) receptors in rat brain.
Johnson MT, McCullough J, Nindl G, Chamberlain JK.
Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA.
Serotonin (5HT1A) is a chemical mediator of inflammation and the largest single neurotransmitter system of the brain. Its secretion and physiological actions mediate stress and pain, affecting both immune and nervous system functions through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Serotonin receptor dysfunction is well-characterized in mental disturbances like depression and anxiety. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used therapeutically to treat refractory disorders like non-responsive depression and may act in part through its effect on 5HT1A receptors. Previously we have shown that in vitro, 5HT1A receptor binding to a radioactive agonist can be modulated by specific intensity and frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In the present report we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to evaluate 5HT1A receptor density in rat brain and the impact of pulsed EMF exposure on receptor binding in key brain regions. Rats used in this study had whole body exposures to either a geofield control or to pulsed EMFs to evaluate the treatment for chemically-induced tendinitis. Since the brains were exposed coincidentally as a consequence of the main experiment, we investigated the potential for EMF-induced changes in areas such as the hippocampus. This pilot study should provide a detailed understanding of magnetic field effects on stress-responsive brain regions and will lead to a more coordinated approach to the use of such modalities for therapeutic intervention in humans.
PMID: 12724937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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7: Percept Mot Skills. 2002 Oct;95(2):592-8.     Related Articles, Links

Increased analgesia to thermal stimuli in rats after brief exposures to complex pulsed 1 microTesla magnetic fields.
Ryczko MC, Persinger MA.
Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada.
Nociceptive thresholds to a 55 degrees C hot surface were measured for female Wistar rats before treatments and 30 min. and 60 min. after the treatments. After injection with either naloxone or saline following baseline measurements, the rats were exposed for 30 min. to either sham fields or to weak (about 1 microTesla) burst-firing magnetic fields composed of 230 points (4 msec. per point) presented once every 3 sec. The rats that had received the burst-firing magnetic fields exhibited elevated nociceptive thresholds that explained about 50% of the variance. A second pattern, designed after the behaviour of individual thalamic neurons during nociceptive input and called the "activity rhythm magnetic field" produced only a transient analgesic effect. These results replicated previous studies and suggest that weak, extremely low frequency, pulsed magnetic fields with biorelevant temporal structures may have utility as adjuncts for treatment of pain.
PMID: 12434855 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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8: Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Aug 30;114(15-16):678-84.     Related Articles, Links

Comment in:
*    Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Nov 30;114(21-22):953; author reply 953.

Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee--a double-blind sham-controlled trial.
Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus CB, Nicolakis J.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, AKH Wien, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Peter.nicolakis@akh-wien.ac.at
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Pulsed magnetic field therapy is frequently used to treat the symptoms of osteoarthritis, although its efficacy has not been proven. We conducted a randomized, double-blind comparison of pulsed magnetic field and sham therapy in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients were assigned to receive 84 sessions, each with a duration of 30 minutes, of either pulsed magnetic field or sham treatment. Patients administered the treatment on their own at home, twice a day for six weeks. RESULTS: According to a sample size estimation, 36 consecutive patients were enrolled. 34 patients completed the study, two of whom had to be excluded from the statistical analysis, as they had not applied the PMF sufficiently. Thus, 15 verum and 17 sham-treated patients were enrolled in the statistical analysis. After six weeks of treatment the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index was reduced in the pulsed magnetic field-group from 84.1 (+/- 45.1) to 49.7 (+/- 31.6), and from 73.7 (+/- 43.3) to 66.9 (+/- 52.9) in the sham-treated group (p = 0.03). The following secondary parameters improved in the pulsed magnetic field group more than they did in the sham group: gait speed at fast walking [+6.0 meters per minute (1.6 to 10.4) vs. -3.2 (-8.5 to 2.2)], stride length at fast walking [+6.9 cm (0.2 to 13.7) vs. -2.9 (-8.8 to 2.9)], and acceleration time in the isokinetic dynamometry strength tests [-7.0% (-15.2 to 1.3) vs. 10.1% (-0.3 to 20.6)]. CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee, PMF treatment can reduce impairment in activities of daily life and improve knee function.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Evaluation Studies
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 12602111 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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9: Dis Colon Rectum. 2002 Feb;45(2):280-2.     Related Articles, Links

Sacral magnetic stimulation for pain relief from pudendal neuralgia and sciatica.
Sato T, Nagai H.
Department of Surgery, Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi-machi, Kawachi-gun, Tochigi-ken, Japan.
INTRODUCTION: Magnetic stimulation of the sacral nerve roots is used for neurologic examination. However, no one has reported therapeutic efficacy of pain relief from pudendal neuralgia with sacral magnetic stimulation. METHODS: Five patients with pudendal neuralgia or sciatica received 30 to 50 pulsed magnetic stimuli of the sacral nerve roots. The median age of the patients was 59 (range, 28-69) years; there were 3 females. RESULTS: Sacral magnetic stimulation immediately eliminated the pain. The pain relief lasted between 30 minutes and 56 days (median, 24 hours). Adverse effects were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study indicates that magnetic stimulation of the sacral nerve roots may be a promising therapeutic modality for pain relief from pudendal neuralgia and sciatica. Further studies should be performed to determine the appropriate intensity and frequency, as well as the utility of a second course, of magnetic stimulation treatment.
PMID: 11852346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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10: Biomed Sci Instrum. 2002;38:157-62.     Related Articles, Links

Quantitative characterization of rat tendinitis to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.
Wetzel BJ, Nindl G, Swez JA, Johnson MT.
Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA.
Tendinitis is a painful soft tissue pathology that accounts for almost half of all occupational injuries in the United States. It is often caused by repeated movements and may result in loss of work and income. Current treatments for tendinitis are aimed at reducing inflammation, the major cause of the pain. Although anti-inflammatory drugs and various alternative therapies are capable of improving tendinitis, there are no quantitative scientific data available regarding their impact on inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the time course for healing of rat tendinitis without intervention to be able to assess the efficacy of tendinitis treatments. We are interested in evaluating the therapeutic use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), a therapeutic modality that has been found to be beneficial for healing soft tissue injuries. Tendinitis was induced in Harlan Sprague Dawley rats by collagenase injections into the Achilles tendon, and tendons were collected for four weeks post-injury. To determine the amount of edema, we used caliper measurements of the rat ankles and quantified the tendon water content. To determine the extent of inflammation, we estimated the number of inflammatory cells on histological sections applying stereological methods. The data reveal that edema is maximal 24 hours after injury accompanied by a massive infiltration of inflammatory cells. Inflammatory cells are then gradually replaced by fibroblasts, which are responsible for correcting damage to the extracellular matrix. This natural time course of tendon healing will be used to evaluate the use of PEMFs as a possible therapeutic modality.
PMID: 12085595 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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11: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2001 Dec;18(4):552-3, 572.     Related Articles, Links

[Analgesic effect induced by stimulation of rats brain with strong pulsed magnetic field: a preliminary study]
[Article in Chinese]
Wang Y, Niu J, Shen Q, Jiang D.
Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049.
The Objective of this study was to determine whether stimulation on the brain of SD rats with strong pulsed magnetic field could produce analgesic effect. A stimulator of CADWELL (MES-10) was adopted in the study. The pain index used was the Tail Flick Latency (TFL) of rats. The stimulation parameters were: (1) the intensity percent (20%) and stimulation duration (7 min); (2) the intensity percent (30%) and stimulation duration (3 min). The results showed that the mean Acquired TFL change was 23% (P < 0.01) for the 20% intensity group, and 26% (P < 0.01) for the 30% intensity group. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the new method for analgesia is effective, and compared with other approaches to stimulation analgesia, this one is non-invasive, easy to operate, and less causative of discomfort.
PMID: 11791305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Neurophysiol Clin. 2001 Aug;31(4):247-52.

Interventional neurophysiology for pain control: duration of pain relief following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex.

Lefaucheur JP, Drouot X, Nguyen JP.

Service de physiologie-explorations fonctionnelles, hopital Henri-Mondor, Inserm U421, faculte de medecine, 94010 Creteil, France.

The chronic electrical stimulation of a motor cortical area corresponding to a painful region of the body, by means of surgically-implanted epidural electrodes is a validated therapeutical strategy to control medication-resistant neurogenic pain. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) permits to stimulate non-invasively and precisely the motor cortex. This study shows that a transient pain relief can be induced in patients suffering from chronic neurogenic pain during about the week that follows a 20-min session of 10 Hz-rTMS applied over the motor cortex.

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12: Neurosci Lett. 2001 Aug 17;309(1):17-20.     Related Articles, Links
 
A comparison of rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls exposed to a pulsed (200 microT) magnetic field: effects on normal standing balance.
Thomas AW, White KP, Drost DJ, Cook CM, Prato FS.
The Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine & MR, St. Joseph's Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, N6A 4V2, Ontario, Canada. athomas@lri.sjhc.london.on.ca
Specific weak time varying pulsed magnetic fields (MF) have been shown to alter animal and human behaviors, including pain perception and postural sway. Here we demonstrate an objective assessment of exposure to pulsed MF's on Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Fibromyalgia (FM) patients and healthy controls using standing balance. 15 RA and 15 FM patients were recruited from a university hospital outpatient Rheumatology Clinic and 15 healthy controls from university students and personnel. Each subject stood on the center of a 3-D forceplate to record postural sway within three square orthogonal coil pairs (2 m, 1.75 m, 1.5 m) which generated a spatially uniform MF centered at head level. Four 2-min exposure conditions (eyes open/eyes closed, sham/MF) were applied in a random order. With eyes open and during sham exposure, FM patients and controls appeared to have similar standing balance, with RA patients worse. With eyes closed, postural sway worsened for all three groups, but more for RA and FM patients than controls. The Romberg Quotient (eyes closed/eyes open) was highest among FM patients. Mixed design analysis of variance on the center of pressure (COP) movements showed a significant interaction of eyes open/closed and sham/MF conditions [F=8.78(1,42), P<0.006]. Romberg Quotients of COP movements improved significantly with MF exposure [F=9.5(1,42), P<0.005] and COP path length showed an interaction approaching significance with clinical diagnosis [F=3.2(1,28), P<0.09]. Therefore RA and FM patients, and healthy controls, have significantly different postural sway in response to a specific pulsed MF.
PMID: 11489536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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15: Curr Med Res Opin. 2001;17(3):190-6.     Related Articles, Links

Magnetic pulse treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pipitone N, Scott DL.
Rheumatology Department, King's College Hospital (Dulwich), London, UK.
We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy in patients with clinically symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of six weeks' duration. Patients with radiographic evidence and symptoms of OA (incompletely relieved by conventional treatments), according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, were recruited from a single tertiary referral centre. 75 patients fulfilling the above criteria were randomised to receive active PEMF treatment by unipolar magnetic devices The primary outcome measure was reduction in overall pain assessed on a four-point Likert scale ranging from nil to severe. Paired analysis of the follow-up observations on each patient showed significant improvements in the actively treated group in the WOMAC global score (p = 0.018), WOMAC pain score (p = 0.065), WOMAC disability score (p = 0.019) and EuroQol score (p = 0.001) at study end compared to baseline. In contrast, there were no improvements in any variable in the placebo-treated group. There were no clinically relevant adverse effects attributable to active treatment. These results suggest that unipolar magnetic devices are beneficial in reducing pain and disability in patients with knee OA resistant to conventional treatment in the absence of significant side-effects. Further studies using different types of magnetic devices, treatment protocols and patient populations are warranted to confirm the general efficacy of PEMF therapy in OA and other conditions.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 11900312 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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17: Adv Ther. 2000 Mar-Apr;17(2):57-67.     Related Articles, Links

Spine fusion for discogenic low back pain: outcomes in patients treated with or without pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation.
Marks RA.
Richardson Orthopaedic Surgery, Texas 75080, USA.
Sixty-one randomly selected patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgeries for discogenic low back pain between 1987 and 1994 were retrospectively studied. All patients had failed to respond to preoperative conservative treatments. Forty-two patients received adjunctive therapy with pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation, and 19 patients received no electrical stimulation of any kind. Average follow-up time was 15.6 months postoperatively. Fusion succeeded in 97.6% of the PEMF group and in 52.6% of the unstimulated group (P < .001). The observed agreement between clinical and radiographic outcome was 75%. The use of PEMF stimulation enhances bony bridging in lumbar spinal fusions. Successful fusion underlies a good clinical outcome in patients with discogenic low back pain.
PMID: 11010056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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18: Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Feb;26(1):51-62, viii.     Related Articles, Links

Electromagnetic fields and magnets. Investigational treatment for musculoskeletal disorders.
Trock DH.
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Certain pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) affect the growth of bone and cartilage in vitro, with potential application as an arthritis treatment. PEMF stimulation is already a proven remedy for delayed fractures, with potential clinical application for osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis of bone, osteoporosis, and wound healing. Static magnets may provide temporary pain relief under certain circumstances. In both cases, the available data is limited. The mechanisms underlying the use of PEMF and magnets are discussed.
Publication Types:
*    Review
*    Review, Tutorial


PMID: 10680193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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19: Int J Neurosci. 2000;100(1-4):91-8.     Related Articles, Links

Pretraining exposure to physiologically patterned electromagnetic stimulation attenuates fear-conditioned analgesia.
Stewart LS, Persinger MA.
Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
The effect of weak electromagnetic stimulation on the emergence of conditioned analgesia was examined in the adult rat. Subjects were conditioned to associate a continuous 20 kHz ultrasonic tone (CS) with 0.2 mA footshock (UCS-) over five successive days. For 30 min either before or after conditioning sessions, rats were exposed to sham or pulsed (primed burst potentiation) magnetic fields (500 nT). At the end of the conditioning phase, all animals were evaluated for anticipatory analgesia following CS presentation using a hotplate analgesiometer. Data analysis suggested a statistically significant attenuation of fear-conditioned analgesia in rats exposed to electromagnetic stimulation prior to conditioning, whereas post-conditioning exposure potentiated the reduction in pain sensitivity compared to baseline measures. The present results suggest that the emergence of fear-conditioned responses is sensitive to whole body exposure to a magnetic field pattern that has been shown to induce long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices.
PMID: 10512550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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23: Clin Rheumatol. 1996 Jul;15(4):325-8.     Related Articles, Links

Therapy with pulsed electromagnetic fields in aseptic loosening of total hip protheses: a prospective study.
Konrad K, Sevcic K, Foldes K, Piroska E, Molnar E.
Orszagos Reumatologiai es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapes, Hungary.
Aseptic loosening is the most common problem of hip arthroplasties, limiting its long term success. We report a study of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment in 24 patients with this complication. At the end of treatment, six months and one year later, pain and hip movements improved significantly with the exception of flexion and extension. There was significant improvement in both isotope scans and ultrasonography, but not in plain X-ray. The decreased pain and improved function suggest that PEMF is effective in improving symptoms of patients with loose hip replacement. No improvement, however, can be expected in patients with severe pain due to gross loosening.
PMID: 8853163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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25: Int J Neurosci. 1995 Apr;81(3-4):215-24.     Related Articles, Links

Resolution of Lhermitte's sign in multiple sclerosis by treatment with weak electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R, Dann LC.
NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
Lhermitte's sign, the occurrence of an electrical sensation passing down the back to the legs on flexion of the neck is a common and characteristic feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) which is related to spinal cord lesions affecting the posterior columns and cervical nerve roots. The Lhermitte's sign, which has been reported to occur at some time in up to 25% of MS patients, is seldom painful but is often a cause of distress to the patient and usually a marker of increased disease activity. Treatment with extracranial picotesla range pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been found efficacious in the management of various MS symptoms including pain syndromes. The present communication concerns three MS patients in whom two brief applications of EMFs resulted in resolution of the Lhermitte's sign which emerged during a period of exacerbation of symptoms in one patient and during a prolonged phase of symptom deterioration in the other two patients. As the cause of the Lhermitte's sign is thought to result from the spread of ectopic excitation in demyelinated plaques in the cervical and thoracic regions of the spinal cord, it is hypothesized that the effects of EMFs are related to the reduction of axonal excitability via a mechanism involving changes in ionic membrane permeability. A systemic effect on pain control systems is also postulated to occur secondary to the effects of EMFs on neurotransmitter activity and pineal melatonin functions. This report underscores the efficacy of picotesla EMFs in the management of paroxysmal pain symptoms in MS.
Publication Types:
*    Case Reports
*    Review
*    Review, Tutorial


PMID: 7628912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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26: J Rheumatol. 1994 Oct;21(10):1903-11.     Related Articles, Links

The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and cervical spine. Report of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials.
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Markoll R.
Department of Medicine, Danbury Hospital, CT.
OBJECTIVE. We conducted a randomized, double blind clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and cervical spine. METHODS. A controlled trial of 18 half-hour active or placebo treatments was conducted in 86 patients with OA of the knee and 81 patients with OA of the cervical spine, in which pain was evaluated using a 10 cm visual analog scale, activities of daily living using a series of questions (answered by the patient as never, sometimes, most of the time, or always), pain on passive motion (recorded as none, slight, moderate, or severe), and joint tenderness (recorded using a modified Ritchie scale). Global evaluations of improvement were made by the patient and examining physician. Evaluations were made at baseline, midway, end of treatment, and one month after completion of treatment. RESULTS. Matched pair t tests showed extremely significant changes from baseline for the treated patients in both knee and cervical spine studies at the end of treatment and the one month followup observations, whereas the changes in the placebo patients showed lesser degrees of significance at the end of treatment, and had lost significance for most variables at the one month followup. The means of the treated patients with OA of the cervical spine showed greater improvement from baseline than the placebo group for most variables at the end of treatment and one month followup observations; these differences reached statistical significance at one or more observation points for pain, pain on motion, and tenderness. CONCLUSION. PEMF has therapeutic benefit in painful OA of the knee or cervical spine.

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28: Eur J Surg Suppl. 1994;(574):83-6.     Related Articles, Links

Electrochemical therapy of pelvic pain: effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on tissue trauma.
Jorgensen WA, Frome BM, Wallach C.
International Pain Research Institute, Los Angeles, California.
Unusually effective and long-lasting relief of pelvic pain of gynaecological origin has been obtained consistently by short exposures of affected areas to the application of a magnetic induction device producing short, sharp, magnetic-field pulses of a minimal amplitude to initiate the electrochemical phenomenon of electroporation within a 25 cm2 focal area. Treatments are short, fasting-acting, economical and in many instances have obviated surgery. This report describes typical cases such as dysmenorrhoea, endometriosis, ruptured ovarian cyst, acute lower urinary tract infection, post-operative haematoma, and persistent dyspareunia in which pulsed magnetic field treatment has not, in most cases, been supplemented by analgesic medication. Of 17 female patients presenting with a total of 20 episodes of pelvic pain, of which 11 episodes were acute, seven chronic and two acute as well as chronic, 16 patients representing 18 episodes (90%) experienced marked, even dramatic relief, while two patients representing two episodes reported less than complete pain relief.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial

PMID: 7531030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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29: Int J Rehabil Res. 1993 Dec;16(4):323-7.     Related Articles, Links

Clinical assessment of the RHUMART system based on the use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with low frequency.
Begue-Simon AM, Drolet RA.
Concordia University, Exercise Science Department, Outremont, Quebec, Canada.
PMID: 8175238 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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31: J Rheumatol. 1993 Mar;20(3):456-60.     Related Articles, Links

Comment in:
*    J Rheumatol. 1993 Dec;20(12):2166-7.

A double-blind trial of the clinical effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in osteoarthritis.
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Dyer RH Jr, Fielding LP, Miner WK, Markoll R.
Department of Medicine (Rheumatology), Danbury Hospital, CT 06810.
OBJECTIVE. Further evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), which have been observed to produce numerous biological effects, and have been used to treat delayed union fractures for over a decade. METHODS. In a pilot, double-blind randomized trial, 27 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), primarily of the knee, were treated with PEMF. Treatment consisted of 18 half-hour periods of exposure over about 1 month in a specially designed noncontact, air-coil device. Observations were made on 6 clinical variables at baseline, midpoint of therapy, end of treatment and one month later; 25 patients completed treatment. RESULTS. An average improvement of 23-61% occurred in the clinical variables observed with active treatment, while 2 to 18% improvement was observed in these variables in placebo treated control patients. No toxicity was observed. CONCLUSION. The decreased pain and improved functional performance of treated patients suggests that this configuration of PEMF has potential as an effective method of improving symptoms in patients with OA. This method warrants further clinical investigation.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 8478852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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32: Mil Med. 1993 Feb;158(2):101-4.     Related Articles, Links

Pulsed, non-thermal, high-frequency electromagnetic energy (DIAPULSE) in the treatment of grade I and grade II ankle sprains.
Pennington GM, Danley DL, Sumko MH, Bucknell A, Nelson JH.
Orthopedic Surgery Service, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234.
Acutely sprained ankles represent a frequent and common injury among active duty troops in training, and are a significant source of morbidity with respect to days lost to training. Swelling in the form of periarticular edema limits motion, causes pain, prevents wearing of normal foot gear, and slows the healing process. Reduction of edema was attempted in acutely sprained ankles by the use of pulsed electromagnetic energy (Diapulse). In a randomized, prospective, double blind study of 50 grade I and II (no gross instability) sprained ankles, a statistically significant (p < 0.01) decrease in edema was noted following one treatment with Diapulse. The application of this modality in acutely sprained ankles could result in significant decreases in time lost to military training.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 8441490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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33: Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(6):553-6.     Related Articles, Links

Pain control using high-intensity pulsed magnetic stimulation.
Ellis WV.
Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco.
High-intensity pulsed magnetic stimulation (HIPMS) non-invasively depolarizes neurones, which can be deeply embedded in local tissues. Trans- or subcutaneous electrical stimulation can produce analgesia. To test the hypothesis that similar analgesia could be obtained using HIPMS, analgesia was determined in ten blinded subjects following HIPMS. Analgesia was consistently produced in all subjects with long-lasting pain relief occurring in half of the cases.
PMID: 8297399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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34: Panminerva Med. 1992 Oct-Dec;34(4):187-96.     Related Articles, Links

Therapeutic effects of pulsed magnetic fields on joint diseases.
Riva Sanseverino E, Vannini A, Castellacci P.
Universita di Bologna, Italy.
The present paper describes the effects of pulsed magnetic fields (MF) on diseases of different joints, in chronic as well as acute conditions where the presence of a phlogistic process is the rule. Optimal parameters for MF applications were sought at the beginning of the study and then applied for 11 years; a technical modification in the MF generator was introduced 5 years ago to satisfy the requirement of a hypothesis advanced to understand the mechanism of MF treatment. 3,014 patients were treated by means of MF at extremely low frequencies and intensities. Patient follow-up was pursued as constantly as possible. Pain removal, recovery of joint mobility and maintenance of the improved conditions represented the parameters for judging the results as good or poor. The chi-square test was applied in order to evaluate the probability that the results are not casual. A general average value of 78.8% of good results and 21.2% of poor results was obtained. Higher (82%) percentages of good results were observed when single joint diseases were considered with respect to multiple joint diseases (polyarthrosis); in the latter, the percentage of good results was definitely lower (66%). The high percentage of good results obtained and the absolute absence of both negative results and undesired side-effects, together with the therapeutic advantage due to a technical modification in the MF generator, led to the conclusion that magnetic field treatment is an excellent physical therapy in cases of joint diseases. A hypothesis is advanced that external magnetic fields influence transmembrane ionic activity.
PMID: 1293548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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35: Br J Dermatol. 1992 Aug;127(2):147-54.     Related Articles, Links

A portable pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) device to enhance healing of recalcitrant venous ulcers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Stiller MJ, Pak GH, Shupack JL, Thaler S, Kenny C, Jondreau L.
Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University Medical Center, New York.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of pulsed electromagnetic limb ulcer therapy (PELUT) in the healing of recalcitrant, predominantly venous leg ulcers. The portable device was used at home for 3 h daily during this 8-week clinical trial as an adjunct to a wound dressing. Wound surface area, ulcer depth and pain intensity were assessed at weeks 0, 4 and 8. At week 8 the active group had a 47.7% decrease in wound surface area vs. a 42.3% increase for placebo (P < 0.0002). Investigators' global evaluations indicated that 50% of the ulcers in the active group healed or markedly improved vs. 0% in the placebo group, and 0% of the active group worsened vs. 54% of the placebo group (P < 0.001). Significant decreases in wound depth (P < 0.04) and pain intensity (P < 0.04) favouring the active group were seen. Patients whose ulcers improved significantly after 8 weeks were permitted to continue double-blind therapy for an additional 4 weeks. Eleven active and one placebo patient continued therapy until week 12, with the active treatment group continuing to show improvement. There were no reports of adverse events attributable to this device. We conclude that the PELUT device is a safe and effective adjunct to non-surgical therapy for recalcitrant venous leg ulcers.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Multicenter Study
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 1390143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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36: Spine. 1992 Jun;17(6 Suppl):S83-5.     Related Articles, Links

Effect of smoking and pulsed electromagnetic fields on intradiscal pH in rabbits.
Hambly MF, Mooney V.
Northern California Spine Center, Sacramento.
The adverse effect of cigarette smoking on human spines has been noted indirectly. There is correlation of increased back pain among individuals who smoke heavily. The hypothesis of this study was that an environment of cigarette smoking is an adverse event and will create a reduced pH in the rabbit intervertebral disc. Electromagnetic fields, however, can defend against this adverse event and reduce the tendency toward acidic pH. Rabbits were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2, 4, or 6 weeks and their intradiscal pH measured. Cigarette-smoke-exposed discs demonstrated a consistently lower pH than did the discs of the machine control rabbits. The second group of rabbits were exposed to cigarette smoke and pulsed electromagnetic fields. The cigarette-smoke-exposed rabbits that were exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic fields for 4 hr/day demonstrated no change in their intradiscal pH, in contrast to those who were exposed to smoke alone. In conclusion, cigarette smoke exposure in rabbits consistently produces a lower intradiscal pH and pulsed electromagnetic fields can defend against this adverse effect.
PMID: 1385903 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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37: Scand J Rehabil Med. 1992;24(1):51-9.     Related Articles, Links

Low energy high frequency pulsed electromagnetic therapy for acute whiplash injuries. A double blind randomized controlled study.
Foley-Nolan D, Moore K, Codd M, Barry C, O'Connor P, Coughlan RJ.
Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
The standard treatment of acute whiplash injuries (soft collar and analgesia) is frequently unsuccessful. Pulsed electromagnetic therapy PEMT (as pulsed 27 MHz) has been shown to have pro-healing and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examines the effect of PEMT on the acute whiplash syndrome. One half of the 40 patients entering the study received active PEMT collars: the other half facsimile (placebo). All patients were given instructions to wear the collar for eight hours a day at home and advised to mobilise their necks. At 2 and 4 weeks the actively treated group had significantly improved (p less than 0.05) in terms of pain (visual analogue scale). By chance movement scores for the PEMT group were significantly worse at entry to the study than the control group (p less than 0.05). At 12 weeks they had become significantly better (p less than 0.05). PEMT as described is safe for domiciliary use and this study suggests that PEMT has a beneficial effect in the management of the acute whiplash injury.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 1604262 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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38: Ir Med J. 1991 Jun;84(2):54-5.     Related Articles, Links

Treatment of chronic varicose ulcers with pulsed electromagnetic fields: a controlled pilot study.
Todd DJ, Heylings DJ, Allen GE, McMillin WP.
Department of Dermatology, Belfast City Hospital.
To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in healing of chronic varicose ulcers, 19 patients with this condition were included in a double-blind controlled clinical trial. All patients received standard ulcer therapy throughout the duration of the study and were randomly divided into two groups to receive either active or inactive PEMF therapy. Active therapy was provided by the use of a pait of helmholtz coils on a twice weekly basis over a five week period and inactive therapy was provided on an identical regimen with identical coils wound so that no magnetic field was produced when an electric current was passed through them. The clinician and patients were unable to distinguish the active or inactive coils. No statistically relevant difference was noted between the two groups in the healing rates of the ulcer, change in the lower leg girth, pain or infection rates. However there was a trend in favour of a decrease in ulcer size and lower leg girth in the group treated with active PEMF. As PEMF is a novel treatment for chronic varicose ulcers, more work needs to be done to establish treatment parameters and its usefulness in the treatment of this condition.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Controlled Clinical Trial
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 1894496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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39: Orthopedics. 1990 Apr;13(4):445-51.     Related Articles, Links

Pulsed high frequency (27MHz) electromagnetic therapy for persistent neck pain. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of 20 patients.
Foley-Nolan D, Barry C, Coughlan RJ, O'Connor P, Roden D.
Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
In the majority of patients with neck pain, symptoms will resolve spontaneously or quite quickly in response to therapy. However, some patients' symptoms persist for a long period, irrespective of therapy. In this study, 20 patients with persistent (greater than 8 weeks) neck pain were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial of low energy, pulsed electromagnetic therapy (PEMT)--a treatment previously shown to be effective in soft tissue injuries. For the first 3-week period, group A (10 patients) received active PEMT units while group B (10 patients) received facsimile placebo units. After 3 weeks, both pain (visual analogue scale (P less than .023) and range of movement (P less than .002) had improved in the group on active treatment compared to the controls. After the second 3 weeks, during which both groups used active units, there were significant improvements in observed scores for pain and range of movement in both groups. PEMT, in the form described, can be used at home easily in the treatment of patients with neck pain. It is frequently successful and without side effects.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 2185460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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40: Lancet. 1989 Aug 5;2(8658):331.     Related Articles, Links

Comment on:
*    Lancet. 1989 Jul 1;2(8653):22-3.

Pulsed electromagnetic energy and childbirth.
Ross MD.
Publication Types:
*    Comment
*    Letter


PMID: 2569131 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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41: Minerva Anestesiol. 1989 Jul-Aug;55(7-8):295-9.     Related Articles, Links

[Pulsed magnetic fields. Observations in 353 patients suffering from chronic pain]
[Article in Italian]
Di Massa A, Misuriello I, Olivieri MC, Rigato M.
Three hundred-fifty-three patients with chronic pain have been treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields. In this work the Authors show the result obtained in the unsteady follow-up (2-60 months). The eventual progressive reduction of benefits is valued by Spearman's test. We noted the better results in the group of patients with post-herpetic pain (deafferentation) and in patients simultaneously suffering from neck and low back pain.
PMID: 2622541 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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44: Bioelectromagnetics. 1987;8(2):159-64.     Related Articles, Links

Pulsed subcutaneous electrical stimulation in spinal cord injury: preliminary results.
Ellis W.
The treatment of long-term, stable para- and quadriplegics with pulsed electrical stimulation for pain control resulted in, anecdotally, a significant number of these individuals showing increased motor function as well as sensory awareness. This small pilot study was conducted in order to assess the hypothesis that pulsed electrical fields can effect diseased neurological function. Thirteen para- and quadriplegic subjects with 18 months of stable neurological signs and symptoms were exposed daily to pulsed electrical stimulation for a 6-month period and assessed for any improvement in motor function or sensory perception. The hypothesis is that pulsed electromagnetic fields can normalize viable but dysfunctional neuronal structures. Results were encouraging.
PMID: 3619950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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46: Midwives Chron. 1985 Nov;98(1174):297-8.     Related Articles, Links

Treatment of the perineum by pulsed electro magnetic therapy.
Frank R.
PMID: 3854447 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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47: Lancet. 1984 Mar 31;1(8379):695-8.     Related Articles, Links

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis. A double-blind controlled assessment.
Binder A, Parr G, Hazleman B, Fitton-Jackson S.
The value of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) for the treatment of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis was tested in a double-blind controlled study in 29 patients whose symptoms were refractory to steroid injection and other conventional conservative measures. The treated group (15 patients) had a significant benefit compared with the control group (14 patients) during the first 4 weeks of the study, when the control group received a placebo. In the second 4 weeks, when all patients were on active coils, no significant differences were noted between the groups. This lack of difference persisted over the third phase, when neither group received any treatment for 8 weeks. At the end of the study 19 (65%) of the 29 patients were symptomless and 5 others much improved. PEMF therapy may thus be useful in the treatment of severe and persistent rotator cuff and possibly other chronic tendon lesions.
Publication Types:
*    Clinical Trial
*    Randomized Controlled Trial


PMID: 6143039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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48: Hip. 1983;:306-30.     Related Articles, Links

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head treated by pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs): a preliminary report.
Eftekhar NS, Schink-Ascani MM, Mitchell SN, Bassett CA.
This has been a preliminary report with a short-term follow-up of a small number of observations (28 hips of 24 patients). The follow-ups ranged from 6 to 36 months, with an average of 17.8 months. Only eleven hips (in eleven patients) were followed an average of 8 months after cessation of the treatment. It should be emphasized that this was a "pilot" study, in which no control series was used to determine the natural course of the disease in a comparable clinical setting. Of note was the pain relief, in 19 of 23 patients with moderate to severe pretreatment pain. Also there was an improved function, which suggests that at least in approximately two thirds of the patients there was some clinical benefit from this mode of treatment. In eight hips, clinical conditions did not change; and in two they worsened, requiring further treatment. Eighteen remaining hips were thought to have been benefited by the treatment. Six femoral heads that had already developed varying degrees of collapse (Ficat Type III) collapsed further (1 to 2 mm), and two round heads (Ficat II) progressed to off-round (Ficat III). This preliminary study suggests that further exploration of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is warranted in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
Publication Types:
*    Case Reports

PMID: 6671918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]