Magnetic Therapy and Depression; a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS/TMS) research review.

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF Therapy) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) / fast (10 Hz) or slow (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) mediates depression and/or neurochemical imbalances that cause depression. The studies are clinical in nature, where exposure sessions are short and intense, and require several to dozens of trips to clinic over several weeks. Even so, some studies show benefit lasting 3-6 months post treatment.

We believe there is a better way than blasting the brain with thousands upon thousands of Gauss during short, limited exposure treatments. The researchers of these studies mistakenly believe that the only tissue affected is where 'focused' high density field is aimed. Meanwhile Anninos, Sandyk and Jacobson proved that whole head arrays at just pico-Tesla (10-8 Tesla) at the pineal gland (100's of thousands of times less field amplitude than these rTMS studies done near or above motor threshold...where the eyelids twitch with each pulse) for 3 hour sessions could produce effects both immediate and cumulatively far better than full strength clinical rTMS. We as a group feel rTMS would be better served w/far-less field amplitude, over much-longer daily (or in our case nightly) application in the comfort of one's home.

To read more about enhancing sleep, recovery, longevity and physical & mental performance with pulsed magnetic fields; please visit http://www.earthpulsetechnologies.com

EarthPulse™ US $599.00

"When the solution is simple...God is answering."  ~ Albert Einstein

We are sure most pulsed electromagnetic therapies lead to enhanced ATP production; particularly from the TMS / rTMS done at frequencies between 1 and 20 Hz despite their intense amplitudes. Read our treatise MoreATP: The Mitochondrial Theory of Aging in Reverse
  to understand why regular exposure to 10 Hz field improves organic production of ATP thereby allowing the body to heal itself. 

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to up-regulate / help reset various neurotransmission processes, it would make sense that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) would in fact have significant beneficial effect on depression and other psychiatric disorders caused by neurochemical and hormonal imbalances and / or sub-optimal neurotransmission chemical production.

10 Hz in particular enhances production of ATP and reduces oxidative stress. All tissues have mitochondria, all tissues are affected in the same way (mitochondrially speaking) whether neuroendocrine, grey matter or neurotransmission chemical producing tissues, subsequently the body regulates itself in attempt to heal over-activity or under-activity due to upregulated organic-cellular energy levels. The body is a miraculous healing machine given the proper tools.

Research shows that various pulsed electromagnetic field therapies (rTMS / PEMF) up-modulate certain neuroendocrine functions which improve psychological and physiological health and wellbeing. See Parkinson's bibliography for studies involving Dopamine and Melatonin synthesis and the Sandyk and Anninos pages (links below) for Parkinson's and Epilepsy specifically, Jacobson for tissue studies using pico-Tesla fields. In 2006 momentum increased in the field of researching rTMS specifically against depression and other neurological conditions and in 2012/2013 there are dozens of good studies that have been published. rTMS is now approved for medication resistant depression in the US and Canada. Isn't that nice?...you're forced to stumble through the plethora of depression drugs first, when there is a much better way right out of the gate.

The Depression bibliography is offered for your education only and are not intended as promotional material for our Pulsed Magnetic technology.

Frequency Specific Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Therapy Research:

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research bibliographies and videos are for informational purposes only and not to be mistaken as promotional material for EarthPulse™ BioMagnetic Field Supplementation / Sleep on Command™

Over one thousand pulsed electromagnetic field therapy citations are contained in our research bibliographies; most are linked directly to PubMed a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

See also; Sandyk R, Anninos PA , Jacobson JI; three pioneers of electromagnetic field therapy to treat Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and epilepsy.

PEMF & Electromedicine History - Background:

introduction to electromedicine

brain wave entrainment

brain wave entrainment II

Electromagnetism & Life: Drs Robert O. Becker and Andrew Marino (full book pdf)

The Body Electric: the classic by Robert O. Becker, MD (full book pdf)

Garry Null - BioMagnetic Healing Book

Toxic EMF vs. Therapeutic PEMF: terrific video explaining why EMF is bad and PEMF is good

Dr. Oz Show Episode on Pulsed Magnetic Field Therapy (14 minutes longest version video)

Dr. Oz on PEMF Therapy (Sleep on Command™  out- performs every technology mentioned)

Dr. Oz: How Pulsed Magnetic Fields Heal (generally accurate but absent any discussion of mitochondrial effect)


PEMF Research By Effect:

Alzheimer's and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic fields

anti-aging and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

arthritis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

athletic performance enhancement / ergogenic effects of  pulsed electromagnetic field therapy

autism and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy / rTMS repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

bone / connective tissue regeneration and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

depression and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

EMF protection - electropollution research (your brain and your wireless technologies)

endometriosis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic fields

epilepsy and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

fibromyalgia and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

insomnia and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

migraine headache and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

multiple sclerosis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

nerve regeneration / spinal cord injury (SCI) & frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

neuropathy and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

osteoporosis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

pain and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

Parkinson's disease and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

sleep and radio frequency microwave telecommunications fields

Sleep on Command™ pulsed magnetic sleep-machine

stroke and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

thyroid and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

tinnitus and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS / TMS) research

wound healing and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

EarthPulse™ research conducted since 2002:

video evidence

client feedback forms

chronic lower back pain/sleep study

magnetic fields in the news




rTMS / Pulsed Electromagnetic Therapy Depression Bibliography

Hypomanic shift observed during rTMS treatment of patients with unipolar depressive disorder: four case reports.
Ozten E, Sayar GH, Karamustafalioglu O.
Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 24;12(1):12. doi: 10.1186/1744-859X-12-12.
NP Istanbul Hospital, Uskudar University, Alemdag Cad, Siteyolu Sk, No:27, Istanbul, Umraniye 34675, Turkey. gokben.hizlisayar@uskudar.edu.tr.
OBJECTIVE:
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can enhance the excitement of the brain through adjusting the biological activities of the cerebral cortex and has wide biological effects, making it one basic mechanism of therapy for depression. In the treatment of unipolar depressive disorder, almost in every treatment method, hypomanic and manic shifts can be observed. There is still a lack of data regarding manic and hypomanic symptoms triggered by rTMS applications.
METHOD:
We describe four cases with unipolar depression in which high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex applied as an add-on antidepressive strategy may have induced a hypomanic episode.
RESULTS:
In these cases, 25 Hz rTMS combined with antidepressants may have contributed to the occurrence of hypomanic symptoms.
CONCLUSION:
Using an intensive methodology of rTMS may induce hypomanic symptoms.
Individuals in a hypomanic state have a decreased need for sleep, are extremely outgoing and competitive, and have a great deal of energy. However, unlike with full mania, those with hypomanic symptoms are often fully functioning. A number of high profile sources have cited that individuals suffering from hypomania are actually more productive, risk accepting, and goal oriented than usual. Examples of work that cite this idea include books such as The Hypomanic Edge by John D. Gartner (i suppose that describes me :-)


Treating anxious depression using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Diefenbach GJ, Bragdon L, Goethe JW.
J Affect Disord. 2013 Oct;151(1):365-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.094. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Prefrontal cortical blood flow predicts response of depression to rTMS.
Weiduschat N, Dubin MJ.
J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 5;150(2):699-702. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.04.049. Epub 2013 May 22.

rTMS for pharmacoresistant major depression in the clinical setting of a psychiatric hospital: Effectiveness and effects of age.
Ciobanu C, Girard M, Marin B, Labrunie A, Malauzat D.
J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 5;150(2):677-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.03.024. Epub 2013 May 11.

Antidepressant Efficacy of High (10 Hz) and Low Frequency rTMS at 110% of Motor Threshold versus Sham Stimulation over Left Prefrontal Cortex.
Speer AM, Wassermann EM, Benson BE, Herscovitch P, Post RM.
Brain Stimul. 2013 Jul 29. doi:pii: S1935-861X(13)00226-X. 10.1016/j.brs.2013.07.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a meta-analysis of stimulus parameter effects.
Xie J, Chen J, Wei Q.
Neurol Res. 2013 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print]

Neuron specific enolase and serum remain unaffected by ultra high frequency left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: a preliminary study.
Ullrich H, Kranaster L, Sigges E, Andrich J, Sartorius A.
J Neural Transm. 2013 Jun 5. [Epub ahead of print]

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating major depression and schizophrenia: a systematic review of recent meta-analyses.
Hovington CL, McGirr A, Lepage M, Berlim MT.
Ann Med. 2013 Jun;45(4):308-21. doi: 10.3109/07853890.2013.783993. Epub 2013 May 20.

A Near Infra-Red Study of Blood Oxygenation Changes Resulting From High and Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
Cao TT, Thomson RH, Bailey NW, Rogasch NC, Segrave RA, Maller JJ, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.
Brain Stimul. 2013 May 9. doi:pii: S1935-861X(13)00125-3. 10.1016/j.brs.2013.04.006. [Epub ahead of print] 1 hz lowers blood oxygen where 2 & 5 Hz increases it. Another study pointing toward 10 Hz being superior to lower frequency. See our Key 10 Hz Data pointing toward better oxygen metabolism.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the assessment of motor cortex excitability and treatment of drug-resistant major depression.
Spampinato C, Aguglia E, Concerto C, Pennisi M, Lanza G, Bella R, Cantone M, Pennisi G, Kavasidis I, Giordano D.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 May;21(3):391-403. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2013.2256432. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): An exploratory meta-analysis of randomized and sham-controlled trials.
Berlim MT, Neufeld NH, Van den Eynde F.
J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Apr 21. doi:pii: S0022-3956(13)00119-2. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.03.022. [Epub ahead of print]

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): An exploratory meta-analysis of randomized and sham-controlled trials.
Berlim MT, Neufeld NH, Van den Eynde F.
J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Apr 21. doi:pii: S0022-3956(13)00119-2. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.03.022. [Epub ahead of print]

The management of mood disorders in pregnancy: alternatives to antidepressants.
Richards EM, Payne JL.
CNS Spectr. 2013 Apr 10:1-11. [Epub ahead of print]

Supplementary motor area stimulation for Parkinson disease: A randomized controlled study.
Shirota Y, Ohtsu H, Hamada M, Enomoto H, Ugawa Y; Research Committee on rTMS Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.
Neurology. 2013 Apr 9;80(15):1400-5. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828c2f66. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in theAssessment of Motor Cortex Excitability andTreatment of Drug-Resistant Major Depression.
Spampinato C, Aguglia E, Concerto C, Pennisi M, Lanza G, Bella R, Cantone M, Pennisi G, Kavasidis I, Giordano D.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 Apr 3. [Epub ahead of print]

A Rational Insurance Coverage Policy for Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Major Depression.
Reti IM.
J ECT. 2013 Mar 20. [Epub ahead of print]

Response, remission and drop-out rates following high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled trials.
Berlim MT, van den Eynde F, Tovar-Perdomo S, Daskalakis ZJ.
Psychol Med. 2013 Mar 18:1-15. [Epub ahead of print]

Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of primary motor cortex for neuropathic pain: A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled trial.
Hosomi K, Shimokawa T, Ikoma K, Nakamura Y, Sugiyama K, Ugawa Y, Uozumi T, Yamamoto T, Saitoh Y.
Pain. 2013 Mar 15. doi:pii: S0304-3959(13)00111-5. 10.1016/j.pain.2013.03.016. [Epub ahead of print]

Prefrontal rTMS for treating depression: location and intensity results from the OPT-TMS multi-site clinical trial.
Johnson KA, Baig M, Ramsey D, Lisanby SH, Avery D, McDonald WM, Li X, Bernhardt ER, Haynor DR, Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Sackeim HA, George MS, Nahas Z.
Brain Stimul. 2013 Mar;6(2):108-17. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2012.02.003. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation be considered effective treatment option for negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Prikryl R, Kucerova HP.
J ECT. 2013 Mar;29(1):67-74. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0b013e318270295f.

Clinically meaningful efficacy and acceptability of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating primary major depression: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled trials.
Berlim MT, Van den Eynde F, Jeff Daskalakis Z.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Mar;38(4):543-51. doi: 10.1038/npp.2012.237. Epub 2012 Nov 19.

Combined rTMS to the auditory cortex and prefrontal cortex for tinnitus control in patients with depression: a pilot study.
Park S, Park HJ, Kyeong SH, Moon IS, Kim M, Kim HN, Choi JY.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2013 Feb 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Blinding integrity in randomized sham-controlled trials of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Berlim MT, Broadbent HJ, Van den Eynde F.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Feb 11:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Are neuroticism and extraversion associated with the antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)? An exploratory 4-week trial.
Berlim MT, McGirr A, Beaulieu MM, Van den Eynde F, Turecki G.
Neurosci Lett. 2013 Feb 8;534:306-10. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.12.029. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

Neuroplasticity-based brain stimulation interventions in the study and treatment of schizophrenia: a review.
Rajji TK, Rogasch NC, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.
Can J Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;58(2):93-8.

Theta priming of 1-Hz rTMS in healthy volunteers: effects on motor inhibition.
Tallabs FA, Hammond-Tooke GD.
J Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Feb;30(1):79-85. doi: 10.1097/WNP.0b013e31827ed0e3.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation at 1 Hertz improves clinical symptoms in children with Tourette syndrome for at least 6 months.
Le K, Liu L, Sun M, Hu L, Xiao N.
J Clin Neurosci. 2013 Feb;20(2):257-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2012.01.049. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation accelerates and enhances the clinical response to antidepressants in major depression: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, and sham-controlled trials.
Berlim MT, Van den Eynde F, Daskalakis ZJ.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;74(2):e122-9. doi: 10.4088/JCP.12r07996.

EFFICACY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF HIGH FREQUENCY REPETITIVE TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION (rTMS) VERSUS ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT) FOR MAJOR DEPRESSION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS.
Berlim MT, Van den Eynde F, Daskalakis ZJ.
Depress Anxiety. 2013 Jan 24. doi: 10.1002/da.22060. [Epub ahead of print]

Randomized sham controlled trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for the treatment of panic disorder with comorbid major depression.
Mantovani A, Aly M, Dagan Y, Allart A, Lisanby SH.
J Affect Disord. 2013 Jan 10;144(1-2):153-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.05.038. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

Identifying brain imaging correlates of clinical response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression.
Hernández-Ribas R, Deus J, Pujol J, Segalàs C, Vallejo J, Menchón JM, Cardoner N, Soriano-Mas C.
Brain Stimul. 2013 Jan;6(1):54-61. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2012.01.001. Epub 2012 Feb 22.

Predict the outcome of depression after rTMS using neuroimaging: issue of response or non-response?
Richieri R, Boyer L, Lançon C, Guedj E.
Brain Stimul. 2013 Jan;6(1):95-6. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.12.005. Epub 2012 Feb 22. No abstract available.

Quadri-pulse stimulation induces stimulation frequency dependent cortical hemoglobin concentration changes within the ipsilateral motor cortical network.
Groiss SJ, Mochizuki H, Furubayashi T, Kobayashi S, Nakatani-Enomoto S, Nakamura K, Ugawa Y.
Brain Stimul. 2013 Jan;6(1):40-8. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.12.004. Epub 2012 Feb 23.

The expanding evidence base for rTMS treatment of depression.
George MS, Taylor JJ, Short EB.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;26(1):13-8. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e32835ab46d.

The relationship between brain oscillatory activity and therapeutic effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Leuchter AF, Cook IA, Jin Y, Phillips B.
Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:37. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00037. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Superior antidepressant effect occurring 1 month after rTMS: add-on rTMS for subjects with medication-resistant depression.
Chen SJ, Chang CH, Tsai HC, Chen ST, Lin CCh.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:397-401. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S40466. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Equivalent brain SPECT perfusion changes underlying therapeutic efficiency in pharmacoresistant depression using either high-frequency left or low-frequency right prefrontal rTMS.
Richieri R, Boyer L, Padovani R, Adida M, Colavolpe C, Mundler O, Lançon C, Guedj E.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Dec 3;39(2):364-70. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.07.012. Epub 2012 Jul 29.

A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and acceptability of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treating major depression.
Berlim MT, Van den Eynde F, Daskalakis ZJ.
Psychol Med. 2012 Dec 3:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on fibromyalgia: a randomized sham-controlled trial with 1-mo follow-up.
Lee SJ, Kim DY, Chun MH, Kim YG.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Dec;91(12):1077-85. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e3182745a04.

The role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the Tower of London task performance: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Srovnalova H, Marecek R, Kubikova R, Rektorova I.
Exp Brain Res. 2012 Nov;223(2):251-7. doi: 10.1007/s00221-012-3255-9. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Quantifying the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the rat brain by μSPECT CBF scans.
Wyckhuys T, De Geeter N, Crevecoeur G, Stroobants S, Staelens S.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Oct 30. doi:pii: S1935-861X(12)00196-9. 10.1016/j.brs.2012.10.004. [Epub ahead of print]

A neurophysiological insight into the potential link between transcranial magnetic stimulation, thalamocortical dysrhythmia and neuropsychiatric disorders.
Fuggetta G, Noh NA.
Exp Neurol. 2012 Oct 11. doi:pii: S0014-4886(12)00393-7. 10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.10.010. [Epub ahead of print]

Cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment-resistant depression--a pilot study.
Kedzior KK, Rajput V, Price G, Lee J, Martin-Iverson M.
BMC Psychiatry. 2012 Oct 2;12:163. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-12-163.

Neurophysiological predictors of non-response to rTMS in depression.
Arns M, Drinkenburg WH, Fitzgerald PB, Kenemans JL.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Oct;5(4):569-76. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.12.003. Epub 2012 Feb 22.

Investigating the relationship between cognitive change and antidepressant response following rTMS: a large scale retrospective study.
Hoy KE, Segrave RA, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Oct;5(4):539-46. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.08.010. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Cerebral blood flow ratio of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as a potential predictor of treatment response to transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression.
Kito S, Hasegawa T, Koga Y.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Oct;5(4):547-53. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.09.004. Epub 2011 Oct 3.

Efficacy of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression.
Tarhan N, Sayar FG, Tan O, Kagan G.
Clin EEG Neurosci. 2012 Oct;43(4):279-84. doi: 10.1177/1550059412449752.

New targets for rTMS in depression: A review of convergent evidence.
Downar J, Daskalakis ZJ.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Sep 7. doi:pii: S1935-861X(12)00154-4. 10.1016/j.brs.2012.08.006. [Epub ahead of print]

[Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: response factor].
Dumas R, Padovani R, Richieri R, Lançon C.
Encephale. 2012 Sep;38(4):360-8. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2011.08.004. Epub 2011 Oct 11. Review. French.

Theory of mind in subjects with major depressive disorder: is it influenced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation?
Berlim MT, McGirr A, Beaulieu MM, Turecki G.
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;13(6):474-9. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2011.615861. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

A randomized double-blind sham-controlled comparison of unilateral and bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant major depression.
Blumberger DM, Mulsant BH, Fitzgerald PB, Rajji TK, Ravindran AV, Young LT, Levinson AJ, Daskalakis ZJ.
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;13(6):423-35. doi: 10.3109/15622975.2011.579163. Epub 2011 Jul 8.

Localized potentiation of sleep slow-wave activity induced by prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with a major depressive episode.
Saeki T, Nakamura M, Hirai N, Noda Y, Hayasaka S, Iwanari H, Hirayasu Y.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print]

Combining neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging biomarkers to predict rTMS non-response in depression.
Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Richieri R, Boyer L, Lançon C, Vion-Dury J, Guedj E.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

Θ-burst stimulation and striatal plasticity in experimental parkinsonism.
Ghiglieri V, Pendolino V, Sgobio C, Bagetta V, Picconi B, Calabresi P.
Exp Neurol. 2012 Aug;236(2):395-8. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.04.020. Epub 2012 May 1.

Improvement of health-related quality of life in depression after transcranial magnetic stimulation in a naturalistic trial is associated with decreased perfusion in precuneus.
Dumas R, Richieri R, Guedj E, Auquier P, Lancon C, Boyer L.
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012 Jul 28;10:87. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-87.

An investigation of medial temporal lobe changes and cognition following antidepressant response: A prospective rTMS study.
Furtado CP, Hoy KE, Maller JJ, Savage G, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]

A practical guide to the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression.
Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Jul;5(3):287-96. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.03.006. Epub 2011 Apr 17. Review.

A randomized controlled trial of sequentially bilateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Barr MS, Farzan F, Tran LC, Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Jul;5(3):337-46. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.06.003. Epub 2011 Jul 13.

Clinical applications of noninvasive electrical stimulation: problems and potential.
Rothwell JC.
Clin EEG Neurosci. 2012 Jul;43(3):209-14. doi: 10.1177/1550059412444973. Epub 2012 Apr 29.

Role of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in maintenance treatment of resistant depression.
Chatterjee B, Kumar N, Jha S.
Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;34(3):286-9. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106039.

A double blind randomized trial of unilateral left and bilateral prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment resistant major depression.
Fitzgerald PB, Hoy KE, Herring SE, McQueen S, Peachey AV, Segrave RA, Maller J, Hall P, Daskalakis ZJ.
J Affect Disord. 2012 Jul;139(2):193-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.02.017. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

Long-lasting effects of chronic rTMS to treat chronic rodent model of depression.
Feng SF, Shi TY, Fan-Yang, Wang WN, Chen YC, Tan QR.
Behav Brain Res. 2012 Jun 15;232(1):245-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.04.019. Epub 2012 Apr 17.

An open label trial of clustered maintenance rTMS for patients with refractory depression.
Fitzgerald PB, Grace N, Hoy KE, Bailey M, Daskalakis ZJ.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print]

An open-label study of adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for partial remission in major depressive disorder.
Charnsil C, Suttajit S, Boonyanaruthee V, Leelarphat S.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2012 Jun;16(2):98-102. doi: 10.3109/13651501.2011.632681. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Long-term follow-up of adolescents with resistant depression treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Mayer G, Aviram S, Walter G, Levkovitz Y, Bloch Y.
J ECT. 2012 Jun;28(2):84-6. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0b013e318238f01a.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed adolescents: experience, knowledge, and attitudes of recipients and their parents.
Mayer G, Faivel N, Aviram S, Walter G, Bloch Y.
J ECT. 2012 Jun;28(2):104-7. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0b013e318250058c.

Low-frequency rTMS over right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the treatment of resistant depression: cognitive improvement is independent from clinical response, resting motor threshold is related to clinical response.
Pallanti S, Di Rollo A, Antonini S, Cauli G, Hollander E, Quercioli L.
Neuropsychobiology. 2012 Jun;65(4):227-35. doi: 10.1159/000336999. Epub 2012 May 25.

Resting motor threshold changes and clinical response to prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed patients.
Pretalli JB, Nicolier M, Chopard G, Vandel P, Tio G, Monnin J, Pazart L, Sechter D, Haffen E.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012 Jun;66(4):344-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2012.02341.x.

Modulation of affective symptoms and resting state activity by brain stimulation in a treatment-resistant case of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Volpato C, Piccione F, Cavinato M, Duzzi D, Schiff S, Foscolo L, Venneri A.
Neurocase. 2012 May 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Neural correlates of the antinociceptive effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on central pain after stroke.
Ohn SH, Chang WH, Park CH, Kim ST, Lee JI, Pascual-Leone A, Kim YH.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2012 May;26(4):344-52. doi: 10.1177/1545968311423110. Epub 2011 Oct 6.

A randomized trial comparing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation given 3 days/week and 5 days/week for the treatment of major depression: is efficacy related to the duration of treatment or the number of treatments?
Galletly C, Gill S, Clarke P, Burton C, Fitzgerald PB.
Psychol Med. 2012 May;42(5):981-8. doi: 10.1017/S0033291711001760. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Non-pharmacological treatment of depressive disorders: a review of evidence-based treatment options.
Dirmaier J, Steinmann M, Krattenmacher T, Watzke B, Barghaan D, Koch U, Schulz H.
Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2012 May;7(2):141-9. Review.

Cognitive and volumetric predictors of response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) - a prospective follow-up study.
Furtado CP, Hoy KE, Maller JJ, Savage G, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.
Psychiatry Res. 2012 Apr 30;202(1):12-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.02.004. Epub 2012 May 17.

Cerebral blood flow in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and modulation of the mood-regulatory networks in a successful rTMS treatment for major depressive disorder.
Takahashi S, Ukai S, Tsuji T, Kose A, Shoyama M, Yamamoto M, Okumura M, Shinosaki K.
Neurocase. 2012 Apr 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation prolong the antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation?
Kreuzer PM, Langguth B, Schecklmann M, Eichhammer P, Hajak G, Landgrebe M.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Apr;5(2):141-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Should we consider the depth of the cortex for the use of rTMS?
Trojak B, Meille V, Rouaud O, Chauvet-Gelinier JC, Bonin B.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012 Spring;24(2):E3-4. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.11040089. No abstract available.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in combination with citalopram in young patients with first-episode major depressive disorder: a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial.
Huang ML, Luo BY, Hu JB, Wang SS, Zhou WH, Wei N, Hu SH, Xu Y.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2012 Mar;46(3):257-64. doi: 10.1177/0004867411433216. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

rTMS age-dependent response in treatment-resistant depressed subjects: a mini-review.
Pallanti S, Cantisani A, Grassi G, Antonini S, Cecchelli C, Burian J, Cauli G, Quercioli L.
CNS Spectr. 2012 Mar;17(1):24-30. doi: 10.1017/S1092852912000417. Review.

Parieto-temporal alpha EEG band power at baseline as a predictor of antidepressant treatment response with repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: a preliminary study.
Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Richieri R, Cermolacce M, Loundou A, Lancon C, Vion-Dury J.
J Affect Disord. 2012 Mar;137(1-3):156-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.030. Epub 2012 Jan 12.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation safely administered after seizure.
Bagati D, Mittal S, Praharaj SK, Sarcar M, Kakra M, Kumar P.
J ECT. 2012 Mar;28(1):60-1. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0b013e318221f9b1.

Is low-frequency right-sided rTMS really inferior to electroconvulsive therapy.
Fitzgerald PB.
J ECT. 2012 Mar;28(1):54; author reply 54-5. doi: 10.1097/YCT.0b013e3182254718. No abstract available.

Successful treatment of major depression with electroconvulsive therapy in a pregnant patient with previous non-response to prefrontal rTMS.
Gahr M, Blacha C, Connemann BJ, Freudenmann RW, Schönfeldt-Lecuona C.
Pharmacopsychiatry. 2012 Mar;45(2):79-80. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1297936. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Emotional side effects after high-frequency rTMS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in an adult patient with ADHD and comorbid depression.
Ustohal L, Prikryl R, Kucerova HP, Sisrova M, Stehnova I, Venclikova S, Vrzalova M, Ceskova E.
Psychiatr Danub. 2012 Mar;24(1):102-3. No abstract available.

Cerebral blood flow in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex correlates with treatment response to low-frequency right prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression.
Kito S, Hasegawa T, Koga Y.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012 Mar;66(2):138-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2011.02312.x.

H-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment resistant major depressive disorder: An 18-week continuation safety and feasibility study.
Harel EV, Rabany L, Deutsch L, Bloch Y, Zangen A, Levkovitz Y.
World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]

High-frequency rTMS treatment increases white matter FA in the left middle frontal gyrus in young patients with treatment-resistant depression.
Peng H, Zheng H, Li L, Liu J, Zhang Y, Shan B, Zhang L, Yin Y, Liu J, Li W, Zhou J, Li Z, Yang H, Zhang Z.
J Affect Disord. 2012 Feb;136(3):249-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.006. Epub 2012 Jan 2.

Intensity dependent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation modulation of blood oxygenation.
Thomson RH, Rogasch NC, Maller JJ, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB.
J Affect Disord. 2012 Feb;136(3):1243-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.005. Epub 2011 Aug 27.

Increased cortical excitability with prefrontal high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in adolescents with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.
Croarkin PE, Wall CA, Nakonezny PA, Buyukdura JS, Husain MM, Sampson SM, Emslie GJ, Kozel FA.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2012 Feb;22(1):56-64. doi: 10.1089/cap.2011.0054. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations with transcranial magnetic stimulation in a patient with psychotic major depression: one-year follow-up.
Freitas C, Pearlman C, Pascual-Leone A.
Neurocase. 2012 Feb;18(1):57-65. doi: 10.1080/13554794.2010.547864. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

Electrophysiological differences between high and low frequency rTMS protocols in depression treatment.
Valiulis V, Gerulskis G, Dapsys K, Vistartaite G, Siurkute A, Maciulis V.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2012;72(3):283-95.

[New approach to gait disorders therapy in late stages of Parkinson's disease].
Litvinenko IV, Khalimov RR, Trufanov AG, Krasakov IV, Khaĭmov DA.
Adv Gerontol. 2012;25(2):267-74. Russian.

A sham controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for posttraumatic stress disorder.
Watts BV, Landon B, Groft A, Young-Xu Y.
Brain Stimul. 2012 Jan;5(1):38-43. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2011.02.002. Epub 2011 Mar 3.

The role of transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression: a review.
Lee JC, Blumberger DM, Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ, Levinson AJ.
Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(36):5846-52.

A systematic review of non-invasive brain stimulation therapies and cardiovascular risk: implications for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Sampaio LA, Fraguas R, Lotufo PA, Benseñor IM, Brunoni AR.
Front Psychiatry. 2012;3:87. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00087. Epub 2012 Oct 10.

Effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on emotional state and processing in healthy humans.
Nitsche MA, Koschack J, Pohlers H, Hullemann S, Paulus W, Happe S.
Front Psychiatry. 2012;3:58. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00058. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Unanticipated Rapid Remission of Refractory Bulimia Nervosa, during High-Dose Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex: A Case Report.
Downar J, Sankar A, Giacobbe P, Woodside B, Colton P.
Front Psychiatry. 2012;3:30. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00030. Epub 2012 Apr 20.

Low- vs High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as an Add-On Treatment for Refractory Depression.
Eche J, Mondino M, Haesebaert F, Saoud M, Poulet E, Brunelin J.
Front Psychiatry. 2012;3:13. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00013. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

Effects of electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with depression.
Gedge L, Beaudoin A, Lazowski L, du Toit R, Jokic R, Milev R.
Front Psychiatry. 2012;3:12. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00012. Epub 2012 Feb 24

Effects of low versus high frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive function and cortical excitability in Alzheimer's dementia.
Ahmed MA, Darwish ES, Khedr EM, El Serogy YM, Ali AM.
J Neurol. 2012 Jan;259(1):83-92. doi: 10.1007/s00415-011-6128-4. Epub 2011 Jun 14.

Validation and the future of stimulation therapy of the primary motor cortex.
Saitoh Y.
Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2012;52(7):451-6.

Neuropharmacology. 2012 Jan;62(1):125-34. Epub 2011 Jul 27.
Is rTMS an effective therapeutic strategy that can be used to treat anxiety disorders?
Machado S, Paes F, Velasques B, Teixeira S, Piedade R, Ribeiro P, Nardi AE, Arias-Carrión O.
Source
Panic & Respiration Laboratory, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2011 Oct 19. doi: 10.1002/bem.20714. [Epub ahead of print]
Studies on magnetism and bioelectromagnetics for 45 years: From magnetic analog memory to human brain stimulation and imaging.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Applied Quantum Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; Faculty of Medical Technology, Teikyo University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Brain Stimul. 2011 Oct;4(4):266-74. Epub 2011 Jan 22.
Differential effects of deep TMS of the prefrontal cortex on apathy and depression.
Levkovitz Y, Sheer A, Harel EV, Katz LN, Most D, Zangen A, Isserles M.
Cognitive and Emotional Laboratory, Shalvata Mental Health Care Center, Hod-Hasharon, Israel.

Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation: Therapeutic promises and scientific gaps.
Wassermann EM, Zimmermann T.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jun 1;35(4):1041-4. Epub 2011 Feb 24.
Effectiveness of a second deep TMS in depression: a brief report.
Rosenberg O, Isserles M, Levkovitz Y, Kotler M, Zangen A, Dannon PN.
Source
Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center affiliated to Sackler School of Medicine, University of Tel Aviv, Israel.

Neurocase. 2011 May 25:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
Treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations with transcranial magnetic stimulation in a patient with psychotic major depression: One-year follow-up.
Freitas C, Pearlman C, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Division of Cognitive Neurology, Boston, MA, USA.

Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 May;122(5):1011-8.
The theoretical model of theta burst form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Huang YZ, Rothwell JC, Chen RS, Lu CS, Chuang WL
Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei 10507, Taiwan

J ECT. 2011 Mar;27(1):18-25.
Safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of high doses of adjunctive daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression in a clinical setting.
Hadley D, Anderson BS, Borckardt JJ, Arana A, Li X, Nahas Z, George MS.
Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Psychiatry Department, Medical University of South Carolina, USA

J ECT. 2011 Mar;27(1):e12-4.
A 6-month follow-up case report of regional cerebral blood flow changes in treatment-resistant depression after successful treatment with bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Kito S, Hasegawa T, Okayasu M, Fujita K, Koga Y.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

J Neural Transm. 2011 Mar;118(3):463-71. Epub 2011 Jan 19.
Beneficial effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with cognitive training for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a proof of concept study.
Bentwich J, Dobronevsky E, Aichenbaum S, Shorer R, Peretz R, Khaigrekht M, Marton RG, Rabey JM.
Neuronix Ltd, Yokneam, Israel.

Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011 Mar;65(2):175-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02183.x.
Neuroanatomical correlates of therapeutic efficacy of low-frequency right prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression.
Kito S, Hasegawa T, Koga Y.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Top Stroke Rehabil. 2011 Mar-Apr;18(2):87-91.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): potential progress for language improvement in aphasia.
Galletta EE, Rao PR, Barrett AM.
Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(1):139-45.
Neurobiological mechanisms of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the underlying neurocircuitry in unipolar depression.
Baeken C, De Raedt R.
Department of Psychiatry and Center for Neurosciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium.

Expert Rev Med Devices. 2011 Jan;8(1):85-95.
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression.
Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ.
Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University School of Psychology and Psychiatry, First Floor Old Baker Building, Commercial Road Melbourne, 3004, Victoria 3181 Australia.

Neuropsychobiology. 2011;64(3):163-9. Epub 2011 Jul 29.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the management of mood disorders.
Allan CL, Herrmann LL, Ebmeier KP.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, London, UK.

Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2011;53(6):343-53.
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a treatment for depression].
Schutter DJ.
Universitair Hoofddocent Verbonden aan de Afdeling Psychologische Functieleer aan de Universiteit van Utrecht.

Encephale. 2010 Dec;36 Suppl 6:S197-201.
[Affective disorders and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: Therapeutic innovations].
[Article in French]
Richieri R, Adida M, Dumas R, Fakra E, Azorin JM, Pringuey D, Lancon C.
Pôle Universitaire de Psychiatrie, Hôpital S(te) Marguerite, 270 bd Sainte-Marguerite, 13274 Marseille cedex 09, France

Schizophr Res. 2010 Dec;124(1-3):91-100.
Safety and proof of principle study of cerebellar vermal theta burst stimulation in refractory schizophrenia.
Demirtas-Tatlidede A, Freitas C, Cromer JR, Safar L, Ongur D, Stone WS, Seidman LJ, Schmahmann JD, Pascual-Leone A.
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

J Vis Exp. 2010 Nov 12;(45). pii: 2345. doi: 10.3791/2345.
The NeuroStar TMS device: conducting the FDA approved protocol for treatment of depression.
Horvath JC, Mathews J, Demitrack MA, Pascual-Leone A.
Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, USA.

Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Nov;22(4 Suppl 2):S4-11.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depressive disorder: a pragmatic approach to implementing TMS in a clinical practice.
Derstine T, Lanocha K, Wahlstrom C, Hutton TM.
SunPointe Health, State College, PA, USA.

Expert Rev Neurother. 2010 Nov;10(11):1761-72.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression.
George MS.
Institute of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 502 N, 67 President St, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

Brain Stimul. 2010 Oct;3(4):187-99. Epub 2010 Aug 11.
Durability of clinical benefit with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of pharmacoresistant major depression: assessment of relapse during a 6-month, multisite, open-label study.
Janicak PG, Nahas Z, Lisanby SH, Solvason HB, Sampson SM, McDonald WM, Marangell LB, Rosenquist P, McCall WV, Kimball J, O'Reardon JP, Loo C, Husain MH, Krystal A, Gilmer W, Dowd SM, Demitrack MA, Schatzberg AF.
Department of Psychiatry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

Depress Anxiety. 2010 Oct;27(10):960-3.
Accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
Holtzheimer PE 3rd, McDonald WM, Mufti M, Kelley ME, Quinn S, Corso G, Epstein CM.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Vertex. 2010 Sep-Oct;21(93):330-8.
[Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and its contributions to psychiatry].
Barel MV.

J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Jul;71(7):873-84. Epub 2010 Mar 9.
Should we expand the toolbox of psychiatric treatment methods to include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A meta-analysis of the efficacy of rTMS in psychiatric disorders.
Slotema CW, Blom JD, Hoek HW, Sommer IE.
Center for Personality Disorders, Lijnbaan 4, The Hague, the Netherlands

Depress Anxiety. 2010 May;27(5):465-9.
Deep TMS in a resistant major depressive disorder: a brief report.
Rosenberg O, Shoenfeld N, Zangen A, Kotler M, Dannon PN.
Beer Yaaakov Mental Health Center, Sackler School of Medicine University of Tel Aviv Israel, Israel.

Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2010 Mar-Apr;38(2):87-93. Epub 2010 Mar 1.
Efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in depression: naturalistic study.
Aliño JJ, Jiménez JL, Flores SC, Alcocer MI.
Psychiatry Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid.

Brain Stimul. 2009 Oct;2(4):188-200. Epub 2009 Sep 16.
Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation over the prefrontal cortex: evaluation of antidepressant and cognitive effects in depressive patients.
Levkovitz Y, Harel EV, Roth Y, Braw Y, Most D, Katz LN, Sheer A, Gersner R, Zangen A.
Shalvata Mental Health Care Center, Cognitive and Emotional Laboratory, Hod-Hasharon, Israel.

Cortex. 2009 Oct;45(9):1035-42. Epub 2009 Mar 3.
How does transcranial magnetic stimulation modify neuronal activity in the brain? Implications for studies of cognition.
Siebner HR, Hartwigsen G, Kassuba T, Rothwell JC.
Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

Exp Neurol. 2009 Sep;219(1):2-13. Epub 2009 May 4.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex in depression.
Padberg F, George MS.
Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Nussbaumstr. 7, 80336 Munich, Germany.

Psychiatry Res. 2009 Aug 30;169(1):12-5. Epub 2009 Jul 23.
A study of the effectiveness of high-frequency left prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression in patients who have not responded to right-sided stimulation.
Fitzgerald PB, McQueen S, Herring S, Hoy K, Segrave R, Kulkarni J, Daskalakis ZJ.
Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred and Monash University Department of Psychological Medicine, Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3004,

J Affect Disord. 2009 Jun;115(3):386-94. Epub 2008 Nov 22.
Opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on mood in depressed patients: relationship to baseline cerebral activity on PET.
Speer AM, Benson BE, Kimbrell TK, Wassermann EM, Willis MW, Herscovitch P, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009 May;56(5):1512-23. Epub 2009 Feb 6.
Magnetic stimulation and depression of mammalian networks in primary neuronal cell cultures.
Meyer JF, Wolf B, Gross GW.
Department of Medical Electronics, Technical University of Munich, Munich 80333, Germany

Adv Ther. 2009 Mar;26(3):346-68. Epub 2009 Mar 28.
Cost-effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depression: a health economics analysis.
Simpson KN, Welch MJ, Kozel FA, Demitrack MA, Nahas Z.
Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President Street, Room 502N, Charleston, SC, 29403, USA.

Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2009 Feb 9;51(1305):11-2.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for medication-resistant depression.
The FDA has cleared a new device for treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) resistant to antidepressant medication. The NeuroStar TMS System (Neuronetics) produces pulsed magnetic fields that can induce electrical currents in the brain. Unlike electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), it does not require anesthesia or induction of seizures. Other similar devices are under development.

Brain Stimul. 2009 Jan;2(1):14-21. Epub 2008 Jun 27.
Controversy: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation shows efficacy in treating psychiatric diseases (depression, mania, schizophrenia, obsessive-complusive disorder, panic, posttraumatic stress disorder).
George MS, Padberg F, Schlaepfer TE, O'Reardon JP, Fitzgerald PB, Nahas ZH, Marcolin MA.
Psychiatry Department, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, 29425, USA.

Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2009;15(2):94-101.
Plasticity in the developing brain: implications for rehabilitation.
Johnston MV.
Departments of Neurology, Pediatrics and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 707 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Psychopharmacol Bull. 2009;42(2):5-38.
Clinical significance of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of pharmacoresistant depression: synthesis of recent data.
Demitrack MA, Thase ME.
Source Neuronetics, Inc.

Expert Rev Med Devices. 2008 Sep;5(5):559-66.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation: a device intended for the psychiatrist's office, but what is its future clinical role?
Shah DB, Weaver L, O'Reardon JP.
TMS Laboratory, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

J Affect Disord. 2008 Jun 20. [Epub ahead of print] Links
The impact of one HF-rTMS session on mood and salivary cortisol in treatment resistant unipolar melancholic depressed patients.
Baeken C, De Raedt R, Leyman L, Schiettecatte J, Kaufman L, Poppe K, Vanderhasselt MA, Anckaert E, Bossuyt A.
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Free University of Brussels, UZBrussel, Belgium.

J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 May 20:e1-e5. [Epub ahead of print] Links
An Open-Label, Prospective Study of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the Long-Term Treatment of Refractory Depression: Reproducibility and Duration of the Antidepressant Effect in Medication-Free Patients.
Demirtas-Tatlidede A, Mechanic-Hamilton D, Press DZ, Pearlman C, Stern WM, Thall M, Pascual-Leone A.
From the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, and the Department of Neurology, Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass.

Psychol Med. 2008 Apr 30:1-11. [Epub ahead of print] Links
Antidepressant efficacy of high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in double-blind sham-controlled designs: a meta-analysis.
Schutter DJ.
Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Mar;65(3):268-76. Links
Treatment of vascular depression using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Jorge RE, Moser DJ, Acion L, Robinson RG.
Department of Psychiatry, The University of Iowa, Room W278 General Hospital, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA 52242-1000, USA

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008 Winter;20(1):74-80.Links
Changes in regional cerebral blood flow after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in treatment-resistant depression.
Kito S, Fujita K, Koga Y.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8611, Japan

Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008 Feb;29(1):69-70.Links
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depressive episode during pregnancy.
Klirova M, Novak T, Kopecek M, Mohr P, Strunzova V.
Prague Psychiatric Centre, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

Clin Neurophysiol. 2008 Feb;119(2):482-91. Epub 2007 Dec 11. Links
Evaluation of the potential genotoxic effects of rTMS on the rat brain and current density mapping.
de Sauvage RC, Lagroye I, Billaudel B, Veyret B.
University of Bordeaux 1, IMS Laboratory-Bioelectromagnetics group, ENSCPB/EPHE, 16 Pey Berland Avenue, 33607 Pessac Cedex, France

Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct;118(10):2189-94. Epub 2007 Aug 21. Links
An open study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression with Parkinson's disease.
Epstein CM, Evatt ML, Funk A, Girard-Siqueira L, Lupei N, Slaughter L, Athar S, Green J, McDonald W, Delong MR.
Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Oct;41(7):606-15. Epub 2006 Apr 4. Links
Metabolic alterations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after treatment with high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with unipolar major depression.
Luborzewski A, Schubert F, Seifert F, Danker-Hopfe H, Brakemeier EL, Schlattmann P, Anghelescu I, Colla M, Bajbouj M.
Department of Psychiatry, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Eschenallee 3, D-14050 Berlin, Germany.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Sep 20;:1-28 [Epub ahead of print] Links
A review of the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a clinical treatment for depression.
Loo CK, McFarquhar TF, Mitchell PB.
Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia.

 Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Sep;116(3):165-73. Links
Has repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for depression improved? A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the recent vs. the earlier rTMS studies.
Gross M, Nakamura L, Pascual-Leone A, Fregni F.
Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

 J Affect Disord. 2007 Sep;102(1-3):277-80. Epub 2007 Jan 9. Links
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of panic disorder (PD) with comorbid major depression.
Mantovani A, Lisanby SH, Pieraccini F, Ulivelli M, Castrogiovanni P, Rossi S.
Department of Psychiatry, Division of Brain Stimulation and Therapeutic Modulation, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 21, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Aug 21;:1-11 [Epub ahead of print] Links
rTMS treatment for depression in Parkinson's disease increases BOLD responses in the left prefrontal cortex.
Cardoso EF, Fregni F, Martins Maia F, Boggio PS, Luis Myczkowski M, Coracini K, Lopes Vieira A, Melo LM, Sato JR, Antonio Marcolin M, Rigonatti SP, Cruz AC, Reis Barbosa E, Amaro E.
NIF, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

 J Affect Disord. 2007 May 7; [Epub ahead of print] Links
Modulation of cardiac autonomic functions in patients with major depression treated with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Udupa K, Sathyaprabha TN, Thirthalli J, Kishore KR, Raju TR, Gangadhar BN.
Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Hosur road, Bangalore, 560 029, India.
RESULTS: Both therapies produced comparable and significant reduction in HDRS scores. HRV measures indicated that rTMS produced significantly greater reduction in the sympathetic: parasympathetic ratio suggesting improvement in sympathovagal balance. Conventional cardiac autonomic function tests did not differentiate the two therapy effects. CONCLUSIONS: rTMS not only produced antidepressant effects but also ''corrected'' the autonomic imbalance.

Clin EEG Neurosci. 2007 Apr;38(2):105-15.Links
Transcranial and deep brain stimulation approaches as treatment for depression.
Rau A, Grossheinrich N, Palm U, Pogarell O, Padberg F.
Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Psychiatry Res. 2007 Mar 30;150(2):181-6. Epub 2007 Feb 14. Links
Long-lasting effects of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depressed patients.
Bortolomasi M, Minelli A, Fuggetta G, Perini M, Comencini S, Fiaschi A, Manganotti P.
Casa di Cura Villa S. Chiara, Verona, Italy

 Encephale. 2007 Mar-Apr;33(2):126-34. Links
[Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression: a review]
[Article in French]
Brunelin J, Poulet E, Boeuve C, Zeroug-vial H, d'Amato T, Saoud M.
EA 3092, UCBL, Professeur J. Daléry, CH Le Vinatier, 95 boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron cedex.

Psychol Med. 2007 Mar;37(3):341-9. Epub 2006 Dec 19. Links
A sham-controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of twice-daily rTMS in major depression.
Loo CK, Mitchell PB, McFarquhar TF, Malhi GS, Sachdev PS.
School of Psychiatry, University of NSW and Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia.

 J Affect Disord. 2006 Oct;95(1-3):35-42. Epub 2006 Jun 15. Links
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on [11C]raclopride binding and cognitive function in patients with depression.
Kuroda Y, Motohashi N, Ito H, Ito S, Takano A, Nishikawa T, Suhara T.
Section of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Neurosci Lett. 2006 Sep 11;405(1-2):79-83. Epub 2006 Jul 12. Links
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protects hippocampal plasticity in an animal model of depression.
Kim EJ, Kim WR, Chi SE, Lee KH, Park EH, Chae JH, Park SK, Kim HT, Choi JS.
Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;30(5):960-2. Epub 2006 Apr 24. Links
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in a patient suffering from comorbid depression and panic disorder following a myocardial infarction.
Sakkas P, Psarros C, Papadimitriou GN, Theleritis CG, Soldatos CR.
Athens University Medical School, Psychiatry Department, Eginitio Hospital, 74 Vas. Sofias Avenue, Athens 11528, Greece

Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jul 11;
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protects hippocampal plasticity in an animal model of depression
Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
rTMS has an antidepressant-like effect after a relatively short period of treatment, and this effect might be mediated by a cellular process that can potentially reverse the impaired synaptic efficacy caused by the forced swim procedure.

Pain Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;7(2):115-8.
Slow-frequency rTMS reduces fibromyalgia pain.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, W11A, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that fibromyalgia (FM) is a centrally mediated pain disorder. Antidepressants, including electroconvulsive therapy, provide some symptomatic relief in FM and other pain disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new antidepressant treatment, which may also be useful in treating chronic pain. RESULTS: Pretreatment pain averaged 8.2 (7-9.5) and reduced to 1.5 (0-3.5) after treatment (P < 0.009). All had improvement in pain, and two had complete resolution of pain.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;30(5):960-2.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in a patient suffering from comorbid depression and panic disorder following a myocardial infarction.

Athens University Medical School, Psychiatry Department, Eginitio Hospital, 74 Vas. Sofias Avenue, Athens 11528, Greece.

Application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was effective and safe in treating a 55-year-old man with comorbid depression and panic disorder, which occurred 6 months after a myocardial infarction.

J Affect Disord. 2006 Jun 14;
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on [(11)C]raclopride binding and cognitive function i
n patients with depression.Section of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Molecular Neuroimaging, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan.

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) elicits moderate antidepressant effects. Several previous studies suggested that the dopaminergic system might be related to this therapeutic action of rTMS. We attempted to determine the effects of chronic rTMS on central dopaminergic function in depression. RESULTS: In five patients, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) significantly decreased. Patients showed significant improvement in verbal memory following rTMS. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that rTMS may be effective for the treatment of depression and also may improve verbal memory function.

J Psychiatr Res. 2006 Jun;40(4):307-14. Epub 2005 Nov 2.
Striatal dopamine release after prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: preliminary results of a dynamic [123I] IBZM SPECT study.
Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Nussbaumstr. 7, D-80336 Munich, Germany.

Though there is considerable evidence that prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) exerts antidepressant effects, the neurobiological action of rTMS in patients with depression is poorly understood. Preclinical studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that prefrontal rTMS can induce dopamine release in mesostriatal and mesolimbic regions. We therefore investigated whether rTMS also modulates striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in depressed patients. In this preliminary study, the reduction of IBZM binding observed after rTMS challenge is suggestive of a release in endogenous dopamine induced by prefrontal rTMS. In future, this approach can be used to differentiate specific and non-specific reward-related effects of rTMS on dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Australas Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;14(1):81-5.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in adolescent depression.
School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Australia. OBJECTIVE: There are few safe and effective biological treatments for major depression in adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation shows early promise as a treatment for major depression in adolescents. Well-designed, sham-controlled studies are now indicated to test the efficacy and safety of rTMS in these patients.

J Affect Disord. 2006 Mar;91(1):83-6.
Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in drug resistant depressed patients.

"S. Giovanni di Dio", Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy. BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels, while antidepressant drugs appear to mend this alteration. The purpose of this study was to assess BDNF serum levels in drug resistant depressed patients before and after repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the relationship between decreased serum BDNF and depression symptomatology and suggest a normalizing effect of rTMS antidepressant treatment.

Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jan 30;141(1):1-13.
Effect of low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation on an affective go/no-go task in patients with major depression: role of stimulation site and depression severity. Bermpohl F, Fregni F, Boggio PS, Thut G, Northoff G, Otachi PT, Rigonatti SP, Marcolin MA, Pascual-Leone A. Harvard Center for Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) holds promise as a therapeutic tool in major depression. However, a means to assess the effects of a single rTMS session on mood to guide subsequent sessions would be desirable. The present study examined the effects of a single rTMS session on an affective go/no-go task known to measure emotional-cognitive deficits associated with major depression. Ten patients with an acute episode of unipolar major depression and eight partially or completely remitted (improved) patients underwent 1 Hz rTMS over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex prior to task performance. TMS over the mesial occipital cortex was used as a control. We observed significantly improved performance in depressed patients following right prefrontal rTMS. This beneficial effect declined with decreasing depression
severity.

Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;163(1):88-94.
A randomized, controlled trial of sequential bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.

Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, the Alfred and Monash University Department of Psychological Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The authors evaluated sequentially combined high-frequency left-side rTMS and low-frequency rTMS to the right prefrontal cortex for treatment-resistant depression. METHOD: The authors conducted a 6-week double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial in 50 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Three trains of low-frequency rTMS to the right prefrontal cortex of 140 seconds' duration at 1 Hz were applied daily, followed immediately by 15 trains of 5 seconds' duration of high-frequency left-side rTMS at 10 Hz. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater response to active than sham stimulation at 2 weeks and across the full duration of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Sequentially applying both high-frequency left-side rTMS and low-frequency rTMS to the right prefrontal cortex, has substantial treatment efficacy in patients with treatment-resistant major depression. The treatment response accumulates to a clinically meaningful level over 4 to 6 weeks of active treatment.

Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jan 15;59(2):187-94.
A controlled study of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in medication-resistant major depression. Avery DH, Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Fawaz W, Russo J, Neumaier J, Dunner DL, Haynor DR, Claypoole KH, Wajdik C, Roy-Byrne P. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, 98104-2499, USA. BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a treatment for depression has shown statistically significant effects, but the clinical significance of these effects has been questioned. METHODS: Each session consisted of 32 trains of 10 Hz repetitive TMS delivered in 5-second trains. RESULTS: The response rate for the TMS group was 30.6% (11/35), significantly (p = .008) greater than the 6.1% (2/33) rate in the sham group. The remission rate for the TMS group was 20% (7/35), significantly (p = .033) greater than the 3% (1/33) rate in the sham group. CONCLUSIONS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation can produce statistically and clinically significant antidepressant effects in patients with medication-resistant major depression.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;30(1):126-30.
A double-blind sham controlled study of right prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): therapeutic and cognitive effect in medication free unipolar depression during 4 weeks.
Unite de recherche clinique, EPS de Ville Evrard a Saint Denis, G03, 5 Rue du Dr Delafontaine 93200 Saint-Denis, France. BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a therapeutic tool in psychiatric diseases. METHODOLOGY: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of TMS in unipolar depression: the percentage of responders (>50% HDRS reduction) and remission (HDRS score < or =8, after four weeks of active TMS treatment in depressed patients free of any antidepressive agent versus placebo-TMS. RESULTS: 27 patients were randomized in two groups: rTMS (N=11) versus sham TMS (N=16). Statistical differences were detected between sham and TMS treated groups on remission (0/16 versus 4/11 p=0.032, 1/16 versus 6/11 0.028 and 1/16 versus 7/11 p=0.011 at day 14, day 21 and day 28, respectively) and on response (2/16 versus 5/11 at day 14 (NS), 2/16 versus 7/11 p=0.0115 at day 21 and 1/16 versus 7/11 (p=0.025) day 28, respectively, using the exact Fisher test). Significant differences were observed between day 1 versus day 8 (p<0.01), day 15, day 21 and day 28 (p<0.001) in TMS group and only versus day 21 (p<0.01) and day 28 (p<0.05) for the sham group. ANOVA comparison between TMS and sham groups was significant at day 14 and day 28 (p<0.05). LIMITATIONS: The few number of patients. CONCLUSION: Our study has shown an efficacy of right rTMS in free medication unipolar depression over a month. Nevertheless, number of patients included is limited and multicentric studies will be necessary to specify the antidepressive action of TMS.

Psychiatry Res. 2006 Jan 30;146(1):53-7.
High (20-Hz) and low (1-Hz) frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation as adjuvant treatment in medication-resistant depression. Psychiatric Unit, Hospital Son Llatzer, Cc/Ctra Manacor Km 4, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Studies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in depression have found antidepressant effects when high frequency stimulation (HF-rTMS; >1 Hz) is applied over the left prefrontal cortex (LPF). A few studies have also reported success with low frequency stimulation (LF-rTMS) to the right prefrontal cortex (RPF). Both HF-rTMS and LF-rTMS have been reported to work better in areas with cerebral hypometabolism or hypermetabolism, respectively. Thirty medication-resistant patients with major depression were randomized into three groups. Comparison of the sham rTMS group with the overall group that received active rTMS revealed statistically significant changes on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after 10 sessions. This study demonstrated that combined 20+1-Hz rTMS was effective.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;30(1):126-30.
A double-blind sham controlled study of right prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): therapeutic and cognitive effect in medication free unipolar depression during 4 weeks. Unite de recherche clinique, EPS de Ville Evrard a Saint Denis, G03, 5 Rue du Dr Delafontaine 93200 Saint-Denis, France.

BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a therapeutic tool in psychiatric diseases. METHODOLOGY: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of TMS in unipolar depression: the percentage of responders (>50% HDRS reduction) and remission (HDRS score < or =8, after four weeks of active TMS treatment in depressed patients free of any antidepressive agent versus placebo-TMS. RESULTS: ANOVA comparison between TMS and sham groups was significant at day 14 and day 28 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study has shown an efficacy of right rTMS in free medication unipolar depression over a month. Nevertheless, number of patients included is limited and multicentric studies will be necessary to specify the antidepressive action of TMS.

J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;66(12):1524-8.
Long-term maintenance therapy for major depressive disorder with rTMS.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Ste. 4005, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence to support the short-term antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), but few published data pertain to the maintenance treatment of patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed major depressive disorder who have responded acutely to rTMS. We describe long-term maintenance therapy for major depressive disorder with rTMS. METHOD: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied in 10 adults over the left prefrontal cortex at 100% of motor threshold, most often at a frequency of 10 Hz for sessions consisting of 40 trains at 5 seconds per train (2000 pulses per session), for periods ranging from 6 months to 6 years. Session frequency averaged 1 to 2 per week. The study was conducted in the TMS lab of an academic medical center. RESULTS: Seven of the 10 subjects experienced either marked or moderate benefit, which was sustained without the addition of concomitant antidepressant medication in 3 cases. There were no serious adverse events reported by any participant. The seizure rate for the 1831 reported rTMS sessions was zero. CONCLUSIONS: These data, while open label, suggest that maintenance rTMS may be a safe and effective treatment modality in some patients with unipolar depression. Further research into the long-term safety and efficacy of rTMS is warranted.

Cogn Behav Neurol. 2005 Dec;18(4):223-7.
The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on procedural memory and dysphoric mood in patients with major depressive disorder. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of depression and treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on sequence learning. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that rTMS over a 2-week period improves performance on tasks of response speed and procedural memory in patients with MDD. These cognitive effects are greater in those patients who showed a significant antidepressant effect.

Psychiatry Res. 2005 Nov 15;137(1-2):1-10.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depressed patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Vita-Salute University, San Raffaele Hospital, via Stamira d'Ancona 20, Milan 20127, This 5-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive 10 daily applications of either real or sham rTMS. Subjects assigned to receive active stimulation were divided into two further subgroups according to the intensity of stimulation: 80% vs. 100% of motor threshold (MT).Response rates were 61.1% (n=11), 27.8% (n=5) and 6.2% (n=1) for 100% MT group, 80% MT group and sham group. Treatment response appeared to be unrelated to the demographic and clinical characteristics recorded, and on the whole the technique was well tolerated. The results of this double-blind trial showed that rTMS may be a useful and safe adjunctive treatment for drug-resistant depressed patients.

Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Jul-Sep;17(3):153-9.
Low frequency rTMS stimulation of the right frontal cortex is as effective as high frequency rTMS stimulation of the left frontal cortex for antidepressant-free, treatment-resistant depressed patients.
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising relatively non-invasive alternative for the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study was to compare the apparent effectiveness of high frequency (20 Hertz) rTMS applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with that of low frequency (1 Hz) rTMS applied over the right The treatment response rate found (32%) was typical of other response rates reported in the literature (6,30). One-month follow-up data was obtained from 50% of participants. At 1-month follow-up, no significant differences were noted as compared to patients' performance at last visit, indicating moderate robustness of rTMS treatment over time. Furthermore, magnetic stimulation did not substantially alter patient memory over the course of treatment. CONCLUSION: rTMS given at low frequency over the right frontal cortex appears to be as effective treatment of refractory depression as high frequency treatment over the left frontal cortex.

Harvard Gazette January 22, 2004
Depressed Get Lift from MRI
William J. Cromie
Harvard N PMID: 16633208 [PubMed - in process]ews Office

Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:466-70.
Autoradiographic evaluation of electromagnetic field effects on serotonin (5HT1A) receptors in rat brain.
Johnson MT, McCullough J, Nindl G, Chamberlain JK.
Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, Indiana University School of Medicine, Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA.

Brain Cogn 2002 Dec;50(3):366-86
Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Neurophysiological applications and safety.
Anand S, Hotson J.
Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, 95192-0100, San Jose, CA, USA

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Dec 1;52(11):1057-65
Chronic psychosocial stress and concomitant repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: effects on stress hormone levels and adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Czeh B, Welt T, Fischer AK, Erhardt A, Schmitt W, Muller MB, Toschi N, Fuchs E, Keck ME.
The German Primate Center, Division of Neurobiology, (BC, AKF, EF), Gottingen, Germany

J ECT 2002 Dec;18(4):170-81
Mechanisms and state of the art of transcranial magnetic stimulation.
George MS, Nahas Z, Kozel FA, Li X, Denslow S, Yamanaka K, Mishory A, Foust MJ, Bohning DE.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2002 Oct;27(4):638-45
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in major depression: relation between efficacy and stimulation intensity.
Padberg F, Zwanzger P, Keck ME, Kathmann N, Mikhaiel P, Ella R, Rupprecht P, Thoma H, Hampel H, Toschi N, Moller HJ.
Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany

J Pharm Pharmacol 2002 Oct;54(10):1299-321
Melatonin: reducing the toxicity and increasing the efficacy of drugs.
Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Lopez-Burillo S.
University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, MC 7762, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2002 Oct;17(7):353-6
Combining high and low frequencies in rTMS antidepressive treatment: preliminary results.
Conca A, Di Pauli J, Beraus W, Hausmann A, Peschina W, Schneider H, Konig P, Hinterhuber H.
Departments of Psychiatry I and II, Regional Hospital, 6830 Rankweil, Austria.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002 Summer;14(3):270-6
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression.
Rosenberg PB, Mehndiratta RB, Mehndiratta YP, Wamer A, Rosse RB, Balish M.
Mental Health Service Line, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC 20422, USA.

Chang Gung Med J 2002 Jul;25(7):424-36
Transcranial magnetic stimulation and its applications in children.
Lin KL, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115,

Neuropharmacology 2002 Jul;43(1):101-9
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the release of dopamine in the mesolimbic and mesostriatal system.
Keck ME, Welt T, Muller MB, Erhardt A, Ohl F, Toschi N, Holsboer F, Sillaber I.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, 80804, Munich, Germany.

Am J Psychiatry 2002 Jul;159(7):1093-102
Slow transcranial magnetic stimulation, long-term depotentiation, and brain hyperexcitability disorders.
Hoffman RE, Cavus I.
Yale-New Haven Psychiatric Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, LV 108, 20 York Street, New Haven, CT 06504, USA

Neurology 2002 Apr 23;58(8):1288-90
Improved executive functioning following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Moser DJ, Jorge RE, Manes F, Paradiso S, Benjamin ML, Robinson RG.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA.

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Apr 15;51(8):659-67
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: preliminary results of a randomized trial.
Janicak PG, Dowd SM, Martis B, Alam D, Beedle D, Krasuski J, Strong MJ, Sharma R, Rosen C, Viana M.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 W Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Biol Psychiatry 2002 Apr 15;51(8):687-90
Three and six-month outcome following courses of either ECT or rTMS in a population of severely depressed individuals--preliminary report.
Dannon PN, Dolberg OT, Schreiber S, Grunhaus L.
Psychiatry Division, ECT-TMS Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Encephale 2002 Mar-Apr;28(2):169-75
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression]
[Article in French]
Saba G, Januel D, Glikman J.
Psychiatre, assistant, Unite de Recherche clinique, Secteur III, Service du docteur Glikman, EPS de Ville Evrard, 5, rue du Docteur Delafontaine, 93200 Saint-Denis, France.

Life Sci 2002 Mar 1;70(15):1741-9
Sleep deprivation in depression stabilizing antidepressant effects by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Eichhammer P, Kharraz A, Wiegand R, Langguth B, Frick U, Aigner JM, Hajak G.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Germany.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2002 Mar;5(1):73-103
Neuropsychiatric applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation: a meta analysis.
Burt T, Lisanby SH, Sackeim HA.
Department of Biological Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002 Mar 28;114(5-6):181-6
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)--from diagnostic procedure to therapy]
[Article in German]
Quiner S, Letmaier M, Barnas C, Heiden A, Kasper S.
Universitatsklinik fur Neuropsychiatrie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Wien.

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2001 Sep-Oct;129(9-10):235-8
[Effect of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in patients with Parkinson 's disease]
[Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]
Potrebic A, Dragasevic N, Svetel M, Kostic VS.
Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

Psychopharmacol Bull 2001 Autumn;35(4):149-69
A meta-analysis of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression.
Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Russo J, Avery DH.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington Medical Center, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359896, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.

J Psychiatr Res 2001 Jul-Aug;35(4):193-215
Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapeutic tool in psychiatry: what do we know about the neurobiological mechanisms?
Post A, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstrasse 2-10, D-80804 Munich, Germany.

Clin Neurophysiol 2001 Aug;112(8):1367-77
Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review.
Wassermann EM, Lisanby SH.
Brain Stimulation Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 10 Center Drive MSC 1428, Bethesda, MD 20892-1428, USA.

Biol Psychiatry 2001 Jul 1;50(1):22-7
Acute mood and thyroid stimulating hormone effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression.
Szuba MP, O'Reardon JP, Rai AS, Snyder-Kastenberg J, Amsterdam JD, Gettes DR, Wassermann E, Evans DL.
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Biol Psychiatry 2001 Jul 1;50(1):22-7
Acute mood and thyroid stimulating hormone effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression.
Szuba MP, O'Reardon JP, Rai AS, Snyder-Kastenberg J, Amsterdam JD, Gettes DR, Wassermann E, Evans DL.
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2001 Apr;24(4):337-49
Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a psychopathological animal model are suggestive of antidepressant-like effects.
Keck ME, Welt T, Post A, Muller MB, Toschi N, Wigger A, Landgraf R, Holsboer F, Engelmann M.

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2001 Jan-Feb;129(1-2):1-4
[Effect of slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on depression in patients with Parkinson disease]
[Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]
Potrebic A, Dragasevic N, Svetel M, Kostic VS.
Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2000 Aug;23(2):205-15
Long-term repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cholecystokinin mRNA, but not neuropeptide tyrosine mRNA in specific areas of rat brain.
Muller MB, Toschi N, Kresse AE, Post A, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

J Psychiatr Res 2000 Jul-Oct;34(4-5):265-76
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces active coping strategies and attenuates the neuroendocrine stress response in rats.
Keck ME, Engelmann M, Muller MB, Henniger MS, Hermann B, Rupprecht R, Neumann ID, Toschi N, Landgraf R, Post A.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstr. 2-10, 80804, Munich, Germany.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2000 Jun;3(2):129-134
Comparison of unlimited numbers of rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and ECT treatment sessions in major depressive episode.
Pridmore S, Bruno R, Turnier-Shea Y, Reid P, Rybak M.
Ugeskr Laeger 2000 Apr 17;162(16):2310-3
[Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. A method in the treatment of depressions]
[Article in Danish]
Hansen PE.
Arhus Universitetshospital, Psykiatrisk Hospital i Arhus, Forskningsafdeling for Affektive Sygdomme

Biol Psychiatry 2000 Feb 15;47(4):314-24
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is as effective as electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of nondelusional major depressive disorder: an open study.
Grunhaus L, Dannon PN, Schreiber S, Dolberg OH, Amiaz R, Ziv R, Lefkifker E.
Psychiatry Division, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Biol Psychiatry 1999 Dec 15;46(12):1603-13
Frequency dependence of antidepressant response to left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a function of baseline cerebral glucose metabolism.
Kimbrell TA, Little JT, Dunn RT, Frye MA, Greenberg BD, Wassermann EM, Repella JD, Danielson AL, Willis MW, Benson BE, Speer AM, Osuch E, George MS, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, Psychiatry Department, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, USA.

Eur J Neurosci 1999 Sep;11(9):3247-54
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rats: evidence for a neuroprotective effect in vitro and in vivo.
Post A, Muller MB, Engelmann M, Keck ME.
Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

Biol Psychiatry 1999 Jun 1;45(11):1440-6
Effects of left frontal transcranial magnetic stimulation on depressed mood, cognition, and corticomotor threshold.
Triggs WJ, McCoy KJ, Greer R, Rossi F, Bowers D, Kortenkamp S, Nadeau SE, Heilman KM, Goodman WK.
Human Motor Physiology Laboratory, University of Florida Health Science Center, Gainesville 32610-0236, USA.

Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999 Apr;56(4):315-20
Therapeutic efficacy of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: a double-blind controlled study.
Klein E, Kreinin I, Chistyakov A, Koren D, Mecz L, Marmur S, Ben-Shachar D, Feinsod M.
Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.

J Clin Psychiatry 1999 Jan;60(1):50-2
Safety and feasibility of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of anxious depression in pregnancy: a case report.
Nahas Z, Bohning DE, Molloy MA, Oustz JA, Risch SC, George MS.
Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA.

Depress Anxiety 1998;7(2):65-8
Preliminary evidence for a beneficial effect of low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression and schizophrenia.
Feinsod M, Kreinin B, Chistyakov A, Klein E.
Department of Psychiatry, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Am J Psychiatry 1997 Dec;154(12):1752-6
Mood improvement following daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with depression: a placebo-controlled crossover trial.
George MS, Wassermann EM, Kimbrell TA, Little JT, Williams WE, Danielson AL, Greenberg BD, Hallett M, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 1997 Apr;31(2):264-72
Transcranial magnetic stimulation as therapy for depression and other disorders.
Kirkcaldie MT, Pridmore SA, Pascual-Leone A.
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Lancet 1996 Jul 27;348(9022):233-7
Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression.
Pascual-Leone A, Rubio B, Pallardo F, Catala MD.
Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidad de Valencia, Spain.

Neuroreport 1995 Oct 2;6(14):1853-6
Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression.
George MS, Wassermann EM, Williams WA, Callahan A, Ketter TA, Basser P, Hallett M, Post RM.
Biological Psychiatry Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, Charleston, SC, USA.

Arch Med Res 1995 Summer;26(2):185-9
The influence of pulsed electrical stimulation on the wound healing of burned rat skin.
Castillo E, Sumano H, Fortoul TI, Zepeda A.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico, D.F.

End rTMS / Pulsed Electromagnetic Therapy Depression Bibliography