Magnetic Therapy and Bone, Cartilage, Connective Tissue; a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy research review

Pulsed electromagnetic fields enhance regeneration of bone and connective tissue matrix. PERIOD. End of story. Studies done that show otherwise are red-herrings (poorly designed and meant to fail). PEMF have been repeatedly shown to reverse degenerative effects of osteo arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. The plethora of failures in the research can be largely-attributed to short duration PEMF application, or use of incorrect waveform, frequency, amplitude or combination of all.

We believe PEMF effects on bone and connective tissue at least partially attributed to  MoreATP, which explains very simply the healing effects of frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) if pulse repetition rate approximates 10 Hz, duration is a few hours per day and field amplitude is at least that of normal magnetic field density (about 1/2 Gauss to several hundred, but not over hundreds). While we are sure most pulsed electromagnetic therapies lead to enhanced bone/connective tissue regeneration, most through some heretofore undisclosed mechanism (alternative cellular energy / ACE pathway), where pulse repetition rate is within 2 Hz and 15 Hz nearly all reported effects are simply due to enhanced ATP production.

"When the solution is simple...God is answering."  ~ Albert Einstein

This site is for informational purposes only. No therapeutic products can be sold in relation to the pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research bibliographies found here.
To read more about enhancing sleep, recovery, longevity and physical & mental performance with pulsed magnetic fields; please visit http://www.earthpulsetechnologies.com

Pulsed magnetic therapy research reveals pulsed electromagnetic field therapy promotes various healing mechanisms, and has been found to promote bone tissue regeneration (even where bone non-union exists), connective tissue regeneration, wound tissue regeneration (even where chronic wounds exist), nerve tissue regeneration with no reported expected or unexpected adverse reactions. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research has proven beyond any reasonable doubt, that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are safe and effective for these uses. PEMF is the perfect regenerative / complimentary medical tool for nearly any condition. It is the future of medicine today. 

Pulsed electromagnetic field research has proven PEMF's are capable of equal or better results than conventional therapies and invasive procedures under the same circumstances, without side effects and with significant pain reduction; without undue cost or inconvenience,   or risk of complications; succeeding even where conventional and invasive therapies have failed, particularly where nutritional support is given. Our favorite Bone supplement is GLC2000.  We have replaced our maintenance doses of GLC2000 with organic sulfur and found it to be superior in all ways. Better to stimulate body's own production of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates with sulfur than taking joint formulas. In addition it is said that Sulfur is a key component of all types of tissue regeneration. Our hair and nails are growning like never before; nails need trimming 1-2 times per week.  We are now of the belief Organic Sulfur and PEMF has far better effect than either by itself.

If you've got fibromyalgia pain or migraine headaches, PEMF is the answer to your prayers and we've rarely seen it fail. Another failure by the medical mainstream to pay attention to some very thought provoking research.

Proceed directly to the web's most complete bibliography of literature using PEMF to heal bone, connective tissue, ligaments & cartilage.


Frequency Specific Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Research Bibliographies:

Several hundred pulsed electromagnetic field therapy citations contained in our research bibliographies are linked directly to PubMed a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the U.S. National Institutes of Health. These studies are offered for your education only and are not intended as promotional material.

See also; Sandyk R, Anninos PA , Jacobson JI; three pioneers of electromagnetic field therapy to treat Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and epilepsy.

PEMF & Electromedicine History - Background:

introduction to electromedicine

brain wave entrainment

brain wave entrainment II

Electromagnetism & Life: Drs Robert O. Becker and Andrew Marino (full book pdf)

The Body Electric: Life: Seminal classic by Robert O. Becker, MD (full book pdf)

Garry Null - BioMagnetic Healing Book

Toxic EMF vs. Therapeutic PEMF  Explained (terrific video explaining why one is good and the other bad)

Dr. Oz Show Episode on Pulsed Magnetic Field Therapy (video)

Dr. Oz on PEMF Therapy (Sleep on Command™  out- performs every technology mentioned)

Dr. Oz: How Pulsed Magnetic Fields Heal (generally accurate but absent any discussion of mitochondrial effect)


PEMF Research By Effect:

Alzheimer's and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic fields

anti-aging and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

arthritis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

athletic performance enhancement (ergogenic effect) and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

autism and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy / rTMS repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

bone / connective tissue regeneration and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

depression and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

EMF protection - electropollution research (your brain and your wireless technologies)

epilepsy and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

fibromyalgia and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

insomnia and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

migraine headache and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

multiple sclerosis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

nerve regeneration / spinal cord injury (SCI) and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

neuropathy and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

osteoporosis and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

pain and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

Parkinson's disease and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

sleep and radio frequency microwave telecommunications fields

Sleep on Command™ pulsed magnetic sleep-machine

stroke and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

thyroid and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

tinnitus and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research

transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS / TMS) research

wound healing and frequency specific pulsed electromagnetic field therapy research


EarthPulse™ research conducted since 2002:

video evidence

client feedback forms

chronic lower back pain/sleep study

magnetic fields in the news



Bone / Connective Tissue / Cartilage / Ligament Repair & Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Therapy

2013 Mar 1;114(5):647-55. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01216.2012. Epub 2012 Dec 13.
Electromagnetic fields enhance chondrogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells in a chondrogenic microenvironment in vitro.
Orthopaedic Research Center, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.
Abstract
We tested the hypothesis that electromagnetic field (EMF) stimulation enhances chondrogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in a chondrogenic microenvironment. A two-dimensional hyaluronan (HA)-coated well (2D-HA) and a three-dimensional pellet culture system (3D-pellet) were used as chondrogenic microenvironments. The ADSCs were cultured in 2D-HA or 3D-pellet, and then treated with clinical-use pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF) or the innovative single-pulse electromagnetic field (SPEMF) stimulation. The cytotoxicity, cell viability, and chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiations were analyzed after PEMF or SPEMF treatment. The modules of PEMF and SPEMF stimulations used in this study did not cause cytotoxicity or alter cell viability in ADSCs. Both PEMF and SPEMF enhanced the chondrogenic gene expression (SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan) of ADSCs cultured in 2D-HA and 3D-pellet. The expressions of bone matrix genes (osteocalcin and collagen type I) of ADSCs were not changed after SPEMF treatment in 2D-HA and 3D-pellet; however, they were enhanced by PEMF treatment. Both PEMF and SPEMF increased the cartilaginous matrix (sulfated glycosaminoglycan) deposition of ADSCs. However, PEMF treatment also increased mineralization of ADSCs, but SPEMF treatment did not. Both PEMF and SPEMF enhanced chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs cultured in a chondrogenic microenvironment. SPEMF treatment enhanced ADSC chondrogenesis, but not osteogenesis, when the cells were cultured in a chondrogenic microenvironment. However, PEMF enhanced both osteogenesis and chondrogenesis under the same conditions. Thus the combination of a chondrogenic microenvironment with SPEMF stimulation can promote chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs and may be applicable to articular cartilage tissue engineering.

Clin Plast Surg. 1985 Apr;12(2):259-77.
The development and application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) for ununited fractures and arthrodeses.
Bassett CA.
CARL BASSET PREDATES AND MENTORED ROBERT O. BECKER IN THE FIELD OF ELECTRIC STIMULATION OF BONE AND OTHER TISSUES. BY ABOUT 20 YEARS! HE WAS ENDING HIS CAREER AS BECKER BEGAN HIS REGENERATION STUDIES.  THIS BASSETT STUDY PRETTY MUCH SAYS IT ALL; AND IF TO BE BELIEVED, INDICATES A CARPETBAGGING OF PEMF BY THE FDA. WE KNOW FIRST HAND PEMF STIMULATION 12 HOURS PER DAY TO FRESH FRACTURES SHORTENS HEALING BY 2/3RDS. YES, HEALED IN 1/3RD THE TIME. WE'VE BEEN TOLD BY TWO ORTHOPEDICS "THIS 86 YEAR OLD HEALED AS FAST AS A 16 YEAR OLD" AND BY ANOTHER "I'VE NEVER SEEN BONE FORMATION THIS FAST IN MY CAREER AS AN ORTHOPEDIC SURGEON".
This article deals with the rational and practical use of surgically noninvasive pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) in treating ununited fractures, failed arthrodeses, and congenital pseudarthroses (infantile nonunions). The method is highly effective (more than 90 per cent success) in adult patients when used in conjunction with good management techniques that are founded on biomechanical principles. When union fails to occur with PEMFs alone after approximately four months, their proper use in conjunction with fresh bone grafts insures a maximum failure rate of 1 to 1.5 per cent. Union occurs because the weak electric currents induced in tissues by the time-varying fields effect calcification of the fibrocartilage in the fracture gap, thereby setting the stage for the final phases of fracture healing by endochondral ossification. The efficacy, safety, and simplicity of the method has prompted its use by the majority of orthopedic surgeons in this country. In patients with delayed union three to four months postfracture, PEMFs appear to be more successful and healing, generally, is more rapid than in patients managed by other conservative methods. For more challenging problems such as actively infected nonunions, multiple surgical failures, long-standing (for example, more than two years postfracture) atrophic lesions, failed knee arthrodeses after removal of infected prostheses, and congenital pseudarthroses, success can be expected in a large majority of patients in whom PEMFs are used. Finally, as laboratory studies have expanded knowledge of the mechanisms of PEMF action, it is clear that different pulses affect different biologic processes in different ways. Selection of the proper pulse for a given pathologic entity has begun to be governed by rational processes similar, in certain respects, to those applied to pharmacologic agents.


Lancet. 1984 Mar 31;1(8379):695-8.
Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis. A double-blind controlled assessment.
Binder A, Parr G, Hazleman B, Fitton-Jackson S.
Abstract
The value of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) for the treatment of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis was tested in a double-blind controlled study in 29 patients whose symptoms were refractory to steroid injection and other conventional conservative measures. The treated group (15 patients) had a significant benefit compared with the control group (14 patients) during the first 4 weeks of the study, when the control group received a placebo. In the second 4 weeks, when all patients were on active coils, no significant differences were noted between the groups. This lack of difference persisted over the third phase, when neither group received any treatment for 8 weeks. At the end of the study 19 (65%) of the 29 patients were symptomless and 5 others much improved. PEMF therapy may thus be useful in the treatment of severe and persistent rotator cuff and possibly other chronic tendon lesions.
PMID: 6143039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



A comparative analysis of the in vitro effects of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment on osteogenic differentiation of two different mesenchymal cell lineages.
Ceccarelli G, Bloise N, Mantelli M, Gastaldi G, Fassina L, De Angelis MG, Ferrari D, Imbriani M, Visai L.
Biores Open Access. 2013 Aug;2(4):283-94. doi: 10.1089/biores.2013.0016.

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) plus BMP-2 upregulates intervertebral disc-cell matrix synthesis more than either BMP-2 alone or PEMF alone.
Okada M, Kim JH, Yoon ST, Hutton WC.
J Spinal Disord Tech. 2013 Aug;26(6):E221-6. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0b013e31827caeb7.

Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field affects proliferation, tissue-specific gene expression, and cytokines release of human tendon cells.
de Girolamo L, Stanco D, Galliera E, Viganò M, Colombini A, Setti S, Vianello E, Corsi Romanelli MM, Sansone V.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013 Jul;66(3):697-708. doi: 10.1007/s12013-013-9514-y. (early studies showed that long term exposure to frequencies aproximately power frequency showed early effect but end result no greater than placebo)

Differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells, WJ-MSCs, into chondrogenic cells in the presence of pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Esposito M, Lucariello A, Costanzo C, Fiumarella A, Giannini A, Riccardi G, Riccio I.
In Vivo. 2013 Jul-Aug;27(4):495-500.

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on human osteoblast cultures.
Barnaba S, Papalia R, Ruzzini L, Sgambato A, Maffulli N, Denaro V.
Physiother Res Int. 2013 Jun;18(2):109-14. doi: 10.1002/pri.1536. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Pulsed electromagnetic fields increased the anti-inflammatory effect of A₂A and A₃ adenosine receptors in human T/C-28a2 chondrocytes and hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts.
Vincenzi F, Targa M, Corciulo C, Gessi S, Merighi S, Setti S, Cadossi R, Goldring MB, Borea PA, Varani K.
PLoS One. 2013 May 31;8(5):e65561. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065561. Print 2013.

Upregulation of intervertebral disc-cell matrix synthesis by pulsed electromagnetic field is mediated by bone morphogenetic proteins.
Okada M, Kim JH, Hutton WC, Yoon ST.
J Spinal Disord Tech. 2013 May;26(3):167-73. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0b013e31823d36cf.

Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulates osteoprotegerin and reduces RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats.
Zhou J, Chen S, Guo H, Xia L, Liu H, Qin Y, He C.
Rheumatol Int. 2013 May;33(5):1135-41. doi: 10.1007/s00296-012-2499-9. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

Electromagnetic fields enhance chondrogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells in a chondrogenic microenvironment in vitro.
Chen CH, Lin YS, Fu YC, Wang CK, Wu SC, Wang GJ, Eswaramoorthy R, Wang YH, Wang CZ, Wang YH, Lin SY, Chang JK, Ho ML.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2013 Mar 1;114(5):647-55. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01216.2012. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the bioactivity of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
Sadoghi P, Leithner A, Dorotka R, Vavken P.
Orthopedics. 2013 Mar;36(3):e360-5. doi: 10.3928/01477447-20130222-27.(75 Hz Red-Herring study)

Early application of pulsed electromagnetic field in the treatment of postoperative delayed union of long-bone fractures: a prospective randomized controlled study.
Shi HF, Xiong J, Chen YX, Wang JF, Qiu XS, Wang YH, Qiu Y.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013 Jan 19;14:35. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-14-35.

Effects of PEMF and glucocorticoids on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.
Esmail MY, Sun L, Yu L, Xu H, Shi L, Zhang J.
Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Dec;31(4):375-81. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2012.662196. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields and dehydroepiandrosterone on viability and osteo-induction of human mesenchymal stem cells.
Kaivosoja E, Sariola V, Chen Y, Konttinen YT.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2012 Oct 5. doi: 10.1002/term.1612. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the management of patients with discogenic lumbar radiculopathy.
Omar AS, Awadalla MA, El-Latif MA.
Int J Rheum Dis. 2012 Oct;15(5):e101-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2012.01745.x.

The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields and dehydroepiandrosterone on viability and osteo-induction of human mesenchymal stem cells.
Kaivosoja E, Sariola V, Chen Y, Konttinen YT.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2012 Oct 5. doi: 10.1002/term.1612. [Epub ahead of print]

The clinical and radiological outcome of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment for acute scaphoid (small wrist bone) fractures: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre trial.
Hannemann PF, Göttgens KW, van Wely BJ, Kolkman KA, Werre AJ, Poeze M, Brink PR.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012 Oct;94(10):1403-8. Red-Herring Alert: this study out of the Netherlands (one of several red herring studies out of the netherlands we identified in this latest 2013 update of our bibliographies) gives us no data on the exposure parameters whatsoever. We recall a 75 year old women that taped our output coil to her the cast on her (several bones) broken wrist sleeping with device set at 10 Hz, Her doctor told her "you healed faster than a 16 year old girl with an injury like that). We call Bull-Sh** on this study. More miraculous 10 Hz examples

Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on human osteoblast cultures.
Barnaba S, Papalia R, Ruzzini L, Sgambato A, Maffulli N, Denaro V.
Physiother Res Int. 2013 Jun;18(2):109-14. doi: 10.1002/pri.1536. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulates osteoprotegerin and reduces RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats.
Zhou J, Chen S, Guo H, Xia L, Liu H, Qin Y, He C.
Rheumatol Int. 2013 May;33(5):1135-41. doi: 10.1007/s00296-012-2499-9. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

Upregulation of intervertebral disc-cell matrix synthesis by pulsed electromagnetic field is mediated by bone morphogenetic proteins.
Okada M, Kim JH, Hutton WC, Yoon ST.
J Spinal Disord Tech. 2013 May;26(3):167-73. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0b013e31823d36cf.

Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulates osteoprotegerin and reduces RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats.
Zhou J, Chen S, Guo H, Xia L, Liu H, Qin Y, He C.
Rheumatol Int. 2013 May;33(5):1135-41. doi: 10.1007/s00296-012-2499-9. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Affects Proliferation, Tissue-Specific Gene Expression, and Cytokines Release of Human Tendon Cells.
de Girolamo L, Stanco D, Galliera E, Viganò M, Colombini A, Setti S, Vianello E, Corsi Romanelli MM, Sansone V.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]

Early application of pulsed electromagnetic field in the treatment of postoperative delayed union of long-bone fractures: a prospective randomized controlled study.
Shi HF, Xiong J, Chen YX, Wang JF, Qiu XS, Wang YH, Qiu Y.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013 Jan 19;14:35. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-14-35.

Effects of PEMF and glucocorticoids on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.
Esmail MY, Sun L, Yu L, Xu H, Shi L, Zhang J.
Electromagn Biol Med. 2012 Dec;31(4):375-81. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2012.662196. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields and dehydroepiandrosterone on viability and osteo-induction of human mesenchymal stem cells.
Kaivosoja E, Sariola V, Chen Y, Konttinen YT.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2012 Oct 5. doi: 10.1002/term.1612. [Epub ahead of print]

The clinical and radiological outcome of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment for acute scaphoid fractures: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre trial.
Hannemann PF, Göttgens KW, van Wely BJ, Kolkman KA, Werre AJ, Poeze M, Brink PR.
J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2012 Oct;94(10):1403-8.

Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Human Osteoblast Cultures.
Barnaba S, Papalia R, Ruzzini L, Sgambato A, Maffulli N, Denaro V.
Physiother Res Int. 2012 Sep 18. doi: 10.1002/pri.1536. [Epub ahead of print]

Systemic treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields do not affect bone microarchitecture in osteoporotic rats.
van der Jagt OP, van der Linden JC, Waarsing JH, Verhaar JA, Weinans H.
Int Orthop. 2012 Jul;36(7):1501-6. doi: 10.1007/s00264-011-1471-8. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Pulsed electromagnetic fields for the treatment of tibial delayed unions and nonunions. A prospective clinical study and review of the literature.
Assiotis A, Sachinis NP, Chalidis BE.
J Orthop Surg Res. 2012 Jun 8;7:24. doi: 10.1186/1749-799X-7-24. Review.

Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the mRNA expression of CAII and RANK in ovariectomized rats.
Chen J, Huang LQ, Xia QJ, He CQ.
Rheumatol Int. 2012 Jun;32(6):1527-32. doi: 10.1007/s00296-010-1740-7. Epub 2011 Feb 15.

Clinical significance of different effects of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields on human osteoclast cultures.
Barnaba SA, Ruzzini L, Di Martino A, Lanotte A, Sgambato A, Denaro V.
Rheumatol Int. 2012 Apr;32(4):1025-31. doi: 10.1007/s00296-010-1724-7. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

[Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field with different frequencies on the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of human ovarian cancer cells].
Wang Q, Wu W, Chen X, He C, Liu X.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Apr;29(2):291-5. Chinese.

Differentiation of human osteoprogenitor cells increases after treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Esposito M, Lucariello A, Riccio I, Riccio V, Esposito V, Riccardi G.
In Vivo. 2012 Mar-Apr;26(2):299-304.

Differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells is induced by high-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Teven CM, Greives M, Natale RB, Su Y, Luo Q, He BC, Shenaq D, He TC, Reid RR.
J Craniofac Surg. 2012 Mar;23(2):586-93. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31824cd6de.

A theoretical study of bone remodelling under PEMF at cellular level.
Wang Y, Qin QH.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2012;15(8):885-97. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2011.565752. Epub 2011 May 27.

J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]
Upregulation of Intervertebral Disc-Cell Matrix Synthesis by Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Is Mediated by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins.
Okada M, Kim JH, Hutton WC, Yoon ST.
*Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur †Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2011 Jan-Mar;24(1 Suppl 2):17-20.
Stimulation of bone formation and fracture healing with pulsed electromagnetic fields: biologic responses and clinical implications.
Chalidis B, Sachinis N, Assiotis A, Maccauro G.
Interbalkan Medical Center, Orthopaedic Department, Thessaloniki, Greece.

here's an example of a red-herring study designed to discredit...
Z Orthop Unfall. 2011 Jun;149(3):265-70. Epub 2011 Jan 21.
[Electromagnetic fields, electric current and bone healing - what is the evidence?].
Schmidt-Rohlfing B, Silny J, Gavenis K, Heussen N.
Klinik für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Aachen

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Jun;69(6):1708-17. Epub 2011 Feb 1.
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on healing of mandibular fracture: a preliminary clinical study.
Abdelrahim A, Hassanein HR, Dahaba M.
Source
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Cairo University Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo, Egypt.

Osteoporos Int. 2011 Jun;22(6):1885-95. Epub 2010 Oct 26.
The preventive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on diabetic bone loss in streptozotocin-treated rats.
Jing D, Cai J, Shen G, Huang J, Li F, Li J, Lu L, Luo E, Xu Q.
Source
Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, 17 West Changle Road, Xi'an 710032, China.

Int Orthop. 2011 Jan;35(1):143-8. Epub 2010 Mar 26.
Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy results in healing of full thickness articular cartilage defect.
Boopalan PR, Arumugam S, Livingston A, Mohanty M, Chittaranjan S.
Source
Department of Orthopaedics Unit 3, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

J Orthop Sci. 2010 Sep;15(5):661-5. Epub 2010 Oct 16.
Noninvasive up-regulation of angiopoietin-2 and fibroblast growth factor-2 in bone marrow by pulsed electromagnetic field therapy.
Goto T, Fujioka M, Ishida M, Kuribayashi M, Ueshima K, Kubo T.
Source
Department of Orthopaedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-chou, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Aug 23;11:188.
Stimulation of osteogenic differentiation in human osteoprogenitor cells by pulsed electromagnetic fields: an in vitro study.
Jansen JH, van der Jagt OP, Punt BJ, Verhaar JA, van Leeuwen JP, Weinans H, Jahr H.
Source
Department of Orthopaedics, Erasmus University Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Aug;468(8):2260-77. Epub 2010 Apr 13.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on human osteoblastlike cells (MG-63): a pilot study.
Sollazzo V, Palmieri A, Pezzetti F, Massari L, Carinci F.
Source
Istituto di Clinica Ortopedica Università di Ferrara, Corso Giovecca 203, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.

Connect Tissue Res. 2010;51(1):1-7.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the mRNA expression of RANK and CAII in ovariectomized rat osteoclast-like cell.
Chen J, He HC, Xia QJ, Huang LQ, Hu YJ, He CQ.
Source
Department of Rehabilitation, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Angle Orthod. 2010 May;80(3):498-503.
Comparison of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic field treatments on OPG and RANKL expression in human osteoblast-like cells.
Borsje MA, Ren Y, de Haan-Visser HW, Kuijer R.
Source
Department of Orthodontics, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2010 Feb;31(2):113-9.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulation affects BMD and local factor production of rats with disuse osteoporosis.
Shen WW, Zhao JH.
Source
Department of Orthopaedics, Third Affiliated Daping Hospital, Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, PR China.

Int Orthop. 2010 Mar;34(3):437-40. Epub 2009 May 22.
Comparative study of the use of electromagnetic fields in patients with pseudoarthrosis of tibia treated by intramedullary nailing.
Cebrián JL, Gallego P, Francés A, Sánchez P, Manrique E, Marco F, López-Durán L.
Source
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain

Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Sep;30(6):423-30.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic stimulation on patients undergoing hip revision prostheses: a randomized prospective double-blind study.
Dallari D, Fini M, Giavaresi G, Del Piccolo N, Stagni C, Amendola L, Rani N, Gnudi S, Giardino R.
Source
VII Division of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy.

J Orthop Res. 2009 Sep;27(9):1169-74.
Modulation of osteogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells by specific pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation.
Tsai MT, Li WJ, Tuan RS, Chang WH.
Source
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li City, Taiwan.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 May;30(4):251-60.
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on the proliferation and differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Sun LY, Hsieh DK, Yu TC, Chiu HT, Lu SF, Luo GH, Kuo TK, Lee OK, Chiou TW.
Source
Department of Life Science and Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2009 Apr;30(3):189-97.
Osteoblasts stimulated with pulsed electromagnetic fields increase HUVEC proliferation via a VEGF-A independent mechanism.
Hopper RA, VerHalen JP, Tepper O, Mehrara BJ, Detch R, Chang EI, Baharestani S, Simon BJ, Gurtner GC.
Source
Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA

Indian J Orthop. 2009 Jan;43(1):17-21.
Biophysical stimulation in osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
Leo M, Milena F, Ruggero C, Stefania S, Giancarlo T.

Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2008;21(1):77-83.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields as adjuvant therapy in bone healing and peri-implant bone formation: an experimental study in rats.
Grana DR, Marcos HJ, Kokubu GA.
Source
Cátedra de Patología I, Escuela de Odontología Asociación Odontológica Argentina, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Bioelectromagnetics. 2008 Jul;29(5):406-9. Links
Pulsed electromagnetic fields induced femoral metaphyseal bone thickness changes in the rat.
Márquez-Gamiño S, Sotelo F, Sosa M, Caudillo C, Holguín G, Ramos M, Mesa F, Bernal J, Córdova T.
Instituto de Investigación Sobre el Trabajo, Universidad de Guanajuato, León, Gto., México

Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 May;466(5):1068-73. Epub 2008 Mar 19. Links
Electromagnetic fields: a novel prophylaxis for steroid-induced osteonecrosis.
Ishida M, Fujioka M, Takahashi KA, Arai Y, Kubo T.
Department of Orthopaedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan

J Orthop Res. 2008 May;26(5):631-42. Links
Cartilage repair with osteochondral autografts in sheep: effect of biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Benazzo F, Cadossi M, Cavani F, Fini M, Giavaresi G, Setti S, Cadossi R, Giardino R.
Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, University of Pavia, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Spine J. 2008 May-Jun;8(3):436-42. Epub 2007 Jul 17. Links
Randomized, prospective, and controlled clinical trial of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation for cervical fusion.
Foley KT, Mroz TE, Arnold PM, Chandler HC Jr, Dixon RA, Girasole GJ, Renkens KL Jr, Riew KD, Sasso RC, Smith RC, Tung H, Wecht DA, Whiting DM.
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, Tennessee 38104, USA.

J Orthop Res. 2008 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print] Links
Pulsed electromagnetic fields enhance BMP-2 dependent osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.
Schwartz Z, Simon BJ, Duran MA, Barabino G, Chaudhri R, Boyan BD.
Petit Institute of Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, 315 Ferst Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332.

Electromagn Biol Med. 2007;26(3):167-77. Links
Effects of different extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on osteoblasts.
Zhang X, Zhang J, Qu X, Wen J.
Department of Physics, Fourth Military Medical University, Shanxi, China.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2007 Oct;28(7):519-28. Links
Pulsed electromagnetic fields affect osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in bone tissue engineering.
Tsai MT, Chang WH, Chang K, Hou RJ, Wu TW.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan.

J Orthop Res. 2007 Sep;25(9):1213-20. Links
Effects of BMP-2 and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on rat primary osteoblastic cell proliferation and gene expression.
Selvamurugan N, Kwok S, Vasilov A, Jefcoat SC, Partridge NC.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, UMDNJ--Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 675 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

J Orthop Res. 2007 Jul;25(7):933-40. Links
Pulsed electromagnetic fields rapidly modulate intracellular signaling events in osteoblastic cells: comparison to parathyroid hormone and insulin.
Schnoke M, Midura RJ.
Department of Biomedical Engineering and The Orthopaedic Research Center, Lerner Research Institute, ND20, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2007 Apr 3. [Epub ahead of print] Links
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on knee cartilage, subchondral and epyphiseal trabecular bone of aged Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs.
Fini M, Torricelli P, Giavaresi G, Aldini NN, Cavani F, Setti S, Nicolini A, Carpi A, Giardino R.
Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Research Institute Codivilla-Putti, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007 Feb 28; [Epub ahead of print]  Links
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on patients' recovery after arthroscopic surgery: prospective, randomized and double-blind study.
"Sacro Cuore Don Calabria" Hospital, Via don A. Sempreboni 5, 37024, Negrar (Vr), Italy.
Severe joint inflammation following trauma, arthroscopic surgery or infection can damage articular cartilage, thus every effort should be made to protect cartilage from the catabolic effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulate cartilage anabolic activities. Previous pre-clinical studies have shown that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) can protect articular cartilage from the catabolic effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and prevent its degeneration, finally resulting in chondroprotection. These findings provide the rational to support the study of the effect of PEMFs in humans after arthroscopic surgery. The purpose of this pilot, randomized, prospective and double-blind study was to evaluate the effects of PEMFs in patients undergoing arthroscopic treatment of knee cartilage. Patients with knee pain were recruited and treated by arthroscopy with chondroabrasion and/or perforations and/or radiofrequencies. All patients were instructed to use PEMFs for 90 days, 6 h per day. Patients were interviewed for the long-term outcome 3 years after arthroscopic surgery. Thirty-one patients completed the treatment. KOOS values at 45 and 90 days were higher in the active group and the difference was significant at 90 days (P < 0.05). The percentage of patients who used NSAIDs was 26% in the active group and 75% in the control group (P = 0.015). At 3 years follow-up, the number of patients who completely recovered was higher in the active group compared to the control group (P < 0.05).

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Feb;15(2):163-8. Epub 2006 Aug 14.  Links
Proteoglycan synthesis in bovine articular cartilage explants exposed to different low-frequency low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.

Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2007 Jan 2; [Epub ahead of print]  Links
[Are SPA therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy effective for chronic neck pain? Randomised clinical trial First part: clinical evaluation.]
Centre de recherche rhumatologique et thermal, BP 234, 73102 Aix-les-Bains cedex, France.

J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Nov;88 Suppl 3:56-60.  Links
Biophysical stimulation with pulsed electromagnetic fields in osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Advanced Therapies, Orthopaedic Clinic, University of Ferrara, Corso della Giovecca, 44100 Ferrara, Italy.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5):42-9. Links
Regenerative effects of pulsed magnetic field on injured peripheral nerves.
Department of Biophysics, University of Cukurova School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey.
Previous studies confirm that pulsed magnetic field (PMF) accelerates functional recovery after a nerve crush lesion. The contention that PMF enhances the regeneration is still controversial, however. The influence of a new PMF application protocol (trained PMF) on nerve regeneration was studied in a model of crush injury of the sciatic nerve of rats. To determine if exposure to PMF influences regeneration, we used electrophysiological recordings and ultrastructural examinations. After the measurements of conduction velocity, the sucrose-gap method was used to record compound action potentials (CAPs) from sciatic nerves. PMF treatment during the 38 days following the crush injury enhanced the regeneration. Although the axonal ultrastructures were generally normal, slight to moderate myelin sheath degeneration was noted at the lesion site. PMF application for 38 days accelerated nerve conduction velocity, increased CAP amplitude and decreased the time to peak of the CAP. Furthermore, corrective effects of PMF on. the abnormal characteristics of sensory nerve fibers were determined. Consequently, long-periodic trained-PMF may promote both morphological and electrophysiological properties of the injured nerves. In addition, corrective effects of PMF on sensory fibers may be considered an important finding for neuropathic pain therapy.

 J Hand Surg [Am]. 2006 Sep;31(7):1131-5.  Links
Pulsed magnetic field therapy increases tensile strength in a rat Achilles' tendon repair model.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of pulsing electromagnetic fields on the biomechanic strength of rat Achilles' tendons at 3 weeks after transection and repair. RESULTS: In the animals receiving PMF exposure, an increase in tensile strength of up to 69% was noted at the repair site of the rat Achilles' tendon at 3 weeks after transection and repair compared with nonstimulated control animals. If similar effects occur in humans, rehabilitation could begin earlier and the risk of developing adhesions or rupturing the tendon in the early postoperative period could be reduced.

Eur J Histochem. 2006 Jul-Sep;50(3):199-204. Links
Stimulation of osteoblast growth by an electromagnetic field in a model of bone-like construct.
Department of Experimental Medicine, Histology and Embryology Unit, via Forlanini 10, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Pain Res Manag. 2006 Summer;11(2):85-90.Exposure to a specific pulsed low-frequency magnetic field: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of effects on pain ratings in rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients.
Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph's Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2.

BACKGROUND: Specific pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to induce analgesia (antinociception) in rodents and healthy human volunteers. OBJECTIVE: The effect of specific PEMF exposure on pain and anxiety ratings was investigated in two patient populations. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design was used. METHOD: The present study investigated the effects of an acute 30 min magnetic field exposure. CONCLUSION: These findings provide some initial support for the use of PEMF exposure in reducing pain in chronic pain populations and warrants continued investigation into the use of PEMF exposure for short-term pain relief.

Ultrasound Med Biol. 2006 May;32(5):769-75.Click here to read Links
Comparison of ultrasound and electromagnetic field effects on osteoblast growth.

Center for Nano Bioengineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan, Republic of China.

This study compares the mechanisms of ultrasound (US) on osteoblast proliferation with those of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), by different signal transduction pathway inhibitors. The cells were stimulated for 15 min under US or for 2 h under PEMF exposure. Twenty-four h after the beginning of stimulation, the cells were harvested and used for mitochondrial activity test (MTT) analysis. The results showed that there are different transduction pathways for US and PEMF stimulation that lead to an upgrade of osteoblast proliferation, although their pathways all lead to an increase in cytocolic Ca2+ and activation of calmodulin. These findings offer a biochemical mechanism to support the process of ultrasound and PEMF-induced enhanced healing of bone fractures.

J Int Med Res. 2006 Mar-Apr;34(2):160-7.   
Efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic therapy for chronic lower back pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Lee PB, Kim YC, Lim YJ, Lee CJ, Choi SS, Park SH, Lee JG, Lee SC.
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial studied the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic therapy (PEMT) in patients with chronic lower back pain. In conclusion, PEMT reduced pain and disability and appears to be a potentially useful therapeutic tool for the conservative management of chronic lower back pain.

Rheumatol Int. 2006 Feb;26(4):320-4. Epub 2005 Jun 29.
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of cervical osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial.
Sutbeyaz ST, Sezer N, Koseoglu BF.
Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Education and Research Hospital, Turk ocagi S No: 3 Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) on pain, range of motion (ROM) and functional status in patients with cervical osteoarthritis (COA). Pain levels in the PEMF group decreased significantly after therapy (p<0.001), but no change was observed in the placebo group. The active ROM, paravertebral muscle spasm and neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) scores improved significantly after PEMF therapy (p<0.001) but no change was observed in the sham group. The results of this study are promising, in that PEMF treatment may offer a potential therapeutic adjunct to current COA therapies in the future.

J Orthop Res. 2006 Jan;24(1):2-10. 
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on maturation of regenerate bone in a rabbit limb lengthening model.
Taylor KF, Inoue N, Rafiee B, Tis JE, McHale KA, Chao EY.
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 6900 Georgia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA.

J Rehabil Med. 2005 Nov;37(6):372-7.
Ice and pulsed electromagnetic field to reduce pain and swelling after distal radius fractures.
Cheing GL, Wan JW, Kai Lo S.
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Acta Orthop Belg. 2005 Oct;71(5):571-6.
Pulsed electromagnetic stimulation of regenerate bone in lengthening procedures.
Luna Gonzalez F, Lopez Arevalo R, Meschian Coretti S, Urbano Labajos V, Delgado Rufino B.
Servicio de Traumatologia, Hospital Clinico Universitario "Virgen de la Victoria", Malaga, Spain. glupsnif@hotmail.com

Distraction osteogenesis for limb lengthening represents the treatment of choice in patients with small stature or limb length discrepancies. Bone lengthening and callus formation requires a long therapy. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are normally used to enhance osteogenesis in patients with non-unions. In this study we investigated whether pulsed electromagnetic fields could be used effectively to encourage callus formation and maturation during limb lengthening procedures. Thirty patients underwent bilateral bone lengthening of the humerus, femur or tibia. At day 10 after surgery, PEMF stimulation was started on one side, for 8 hours/day. Stimulated distraction sites exhibited earlier callus formation and progression, and a higher callus density compared to non-stimulated sites. External fixation could be removed on average one month earlier in PEMF stimulated bones. Our results show that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulation during limb lengthening allows shortening the time of use of the external fixation.

J Orthop Res. 2005 Jul;23(4):899-908. Epub 2005 Mar 17.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields reduce knee osteoarthritic lesion progression in the aged Dunkin Hartley guinea pig.
Fini M, Giavaresi G, Torricelli P, Cavani F, Setti S, Cane V, Giardino R.
Department of Experimental Surgery, Codivilla-Putti Research Institute, Rizzoli Institute of Orthopaedics, Via di Barbiano, 1/10, 40136

An experimental in vivo study was performed to test if the effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) on chondrocyte metabolism and adenosine A2a agonist activity could have a chondroprotective effect on the knee of Dunkin Hartley guinea-pigs of 12 months with spontaneously developed osteoarthritis (OA). After a pilot study, 10 animals were randomly divided into two groups: PEMF-treated group (6 h/day for 3 months) and Sham-treated group.  The PEMF-treated animals showed a significant reduction of chondropathy progression in all knee examined areas. The present study results show that PEMFs preserve the morphology of articular cartilage and slow the progression of OA lesions in the knee of aged osteoarthritic guinea pigs. The chondroprotective effect of PEMFs was demonstrated not only in the medial tibial plateau but also on the entire articular surface of the knee.

Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2005 Sep-Oct;143(5):544-50.
[Adjuvant treatment of knee osteoarthritis with weak pulsing magnetic fields. Results of a placebo-controlled trial prospective clinical trial]
[Article in German] Fischer G, Pelka RB, Barovic J.Institut fur Hygiene an der Universitat Graz, Osterreich.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was the objective control of the therapeutic effect of weak pulsing magnetic fields (series of periodically repeating square pulses increasing according to an e-function, frequencies of 10, 20, 30, and 200-300 Hz) by means of a double-blind study on osteoarthritis of the knee. Measured parameters were the Knee Society score, pain sensation, blood count and cardiocirculatory values. METHODS: 36 placebo and 35 verum test persons (all with a knee gap smaller than 3 mm) were exposed daily for 16 minutes over 6 weeks to a low frequency magnetic field (flux densities increasing gradually from 3.4 up to 13.6 microT) encompassing the whole body. The last data collection was made 4 weeks after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Principally, the statistically ensured results exclusively favour the used magnetic field therapy; by far the greatest number of at least significant differences was found at the end of the whole treatment, lasting 6 weeks. In particular, it is striking that all 4 questioned pain scales showed at least significant improvements in favour of the verum collective; also the walking distance was increased. As another confirmed fact, even after 4 weeks without therapy the persistence of several functional and analgesic effects could be documented. CONCLUSIONS: Predominantly, on the one hand, pain relief in osteoarthritis patients was confirmed by a double-blind trial, on the other hand, increases in mobility could be proven. Furthermore, we describe mainly the modes of action of low frequency magnetic energy and 3 physical concepts that are seen as the connecting link between electromagnetic fields coupled into connective tissue and biochemical repair and growth processes in bones and cartilage. Proceeding from the results of this and preceding studies, one has to consider seriously whether this kind of magnetic field application should not be employed as cost-effective and side effect-free alternative or adjuvant form of therapy in the field of orthopaedic disorders.

J Neurosurg Spine. 2005 Jan;2(1):3-10.Links
Oscillating field stimulation for complete spinal cord injury in humans: a phase 1 trial.
Shapiro S, Borgens R, Pascuzzi R, Roos K, Groff M, Purvines S, Rodgers RB, Hagy S, Nelson P.
Departments of Neurosurgery and Neurology, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

J Orthop Res. 2004 Sep;22(5):1086-93.
Bone mass is preserved in a critical-sized osteotomy by low energy pulsed electromagnetic fields as quantitated by in vivo micro-computed tomography.
Ibiwoye MO, Powell KA, Grabiner MD, Patterson TE, Sakai Y, Zborowski M, Wolfman A, Midura RJ.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute of The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, ND20, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

The effectiveness of non-invasive pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on stimulating bone formation in vivo to augment fracture healing is still controversial, largely because of technical ambiguities in data interpretation within several previous studies. To address this uncertainty, we implemented a rigorously controlled, blinded protocol using a bilateral, mid-diaphyseal fibular osteotomy model in aged rats that achieved a non-union status within 3-4 weeks post-surgery. Bilateral osteotomies allowed delivery of a PEMF treatment protocol on one hind limb, with the contralateral limb representing a within-animal sham-treatment. Bone volumes in both PEMF-treated and sham-treated fibulae were assessed simultaneously in vivo using highly sensitive, high-resolution micro-computed tomography (microCT) over the course of treatment. We found a significant reduction in the amount of time-dependent bone volume loss in PEMF-treated, distal fibular segments as compared to their contralateral sham-treated bones. Osteotomy gap size was significantly smaller in hind limbs exposed to PEMF over sham-treatment. Therefore, our data demonstrate measurable biological consequences of PEMF exposure on in vivo bone tissue.

South Med J. 2004 May;97(5):519-24.Links
Reversal of delayed union of anterior cervical fusion treated with pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation: case report.
Mackenzie D, Veninga FD.
Department of Surgery, Medical Center of Plano, Plano, TX, USA.

J Foot Ankle Surg. 2004 Mar-Apr;43(2):93-6. 
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on hindfoot arthrodesis: a prospective study.
Dhawan SK, Conti SF, Towers J, Abidi NA, Vogt M.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11213, USA.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in a consecutive series of 64 patients undergoing hindfoot arthrodesis (144 joints). All patients who underwent elective triple/subtalar arthrodesis were randomized into control and pulsed electromagnetic field study groups. Subjects in the study group had an external pulsed electromagnetic fields device applied over the cast for 12 hours a day. Radiographs were taken pre- and postoperatively until radiographic union occurred. A senior musculoskeletal radiologist, blinded to the treatment scheme, evaluated the radiographic parameters. The average time to radiographic union in the control group was 14.5 weeks in 33 primary subtalar arthrodeses. There were 4 nonunions. The study group consisted of 22 primary subtalar arthrodeses and 5 revisions. The average time to radiographic union was 12.9 weeks (P =.136). The average time to fusion of the talonavicular joint in the control group was 17.6 weeks in 19 primary procedures. In the pulsed electromagnetic fields group of 20 primary and 3 revision talonavicular arthrodeses, the average time to radiographic fusion was 12.2 weeks (P =.003). For the 21 calcaneocuboid arthrodeses in control group, the average time to radiographic fusion was 17.7 weeks; it was 13.1 weeks (P =.010) for the 19 fusions in the study group. This study suggests that, if all parameters are equal, the adjunctive use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in elective hindfoot arthrodesis may increase the rate and speed of radiographic union of these joints.

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2003;37(5):410-3.
[The efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields used alone in the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis: a report of two cases]
[Article in Turkish] Seber S, Omeroglu H, Cetinkanat H, Kose N.
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Medicine Faculty of Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Long-term radiologic and clinical results of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are presented with illustration of two patients having Ficat-Arlet grade 2 osteonecrosis of the femoral head. One patient (female, age 33 years) had bilateral involvement due to systemic steroid use, the other (male, age 39 years) had right-sided involvement of unknown etiology. Surgical treatment was ruled out because of aplastic anemia associated with significant thrombocyte deficiency in the first patient, while the other refused surgery. Pulsed electromagnetic fields were applied as the sole treatment modality in three hips for six months with a duration of 10 hours daily (at nights). At the end of 12-year- and five-year-follow-ups, respectively, clinical improvement was observed in all hips, with no radiologic deterioration. It is concluded that application of PEMF stimulation alone may be an alternative treatment modality in patients in whom surgical treatment cannot be performed for femoral head osteonecrosis, in particular Ficat-Arlet grade 1 and 2 disease.

Spine. 2003 Dec 15;28(24):2660-6. Links
Exposure to pulsed magnetic fields enhances motor recovery in cats after spinal cord injury.
Crowe MJ, Sun ZP, Battocletti JH, Macias MY, Pintar FA, Maiman DJ.
Neuroscience Research Laboratories, The Clement J. Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53295, USA.

Effects of different intensities of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on formation of osteoclast-like cells.
Chang K, Chang WH, Wu ML, Shih C.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, Republic of China.

J Pediatr Orthop. 2003 Jul-Aug;23(4):478-83.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit tibial leg lengthening model.
Fredericks DC, Piehl DJ, Baker JT, Abbott J, Nepola JV.
Bone Healing Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) would shorten the healing time of regenerate bone in a rabbit tibial distraction model. Beginning 1 day after surgery, mid-shaft tibial osteotomies, stabilized with external fixators, were distracted 0.25 mm twice daily for 21 days and received either no exposure (sham control) or 1 hour per day exposure to low-amplitude, low-frequency PEMF. Tibiae were tested for torsional strength after 9, 16, and 23 days post-distraction. PEMF-treated tibiae were significantly stronger than shams at all three time points. By 16 days post-distraction, the PEMF group had achieved biomechanical strength essentially equivalent to intact bone. Shams did not achieve normal biomechanical strength even after 23 days post-distraction. In this tibial distraction model, short daily PEMF exposures accelerated consolidation of regenerate bone.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Jun;11(6):455-62.
Modification of osteoarthritis by pulsed electromagnetic field--a morphological study.
Ciombor DM, Aaron RK, Wang S, Simon B.
Department of Orthopaedics, Brown Medical School, Providence, RI 02906, USA.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002 Aug 30;114(15-16):678-84
Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee--a double-blind sham-controlled trial.
Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus CB, Nicolakis J.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Pulsed magnetic field therapy is frequently used to treat the symptoms of osteoarthritis, although its efficacy has not been proven. We conducted a randomized, double-blind comparison of pulsed magnetic field and sham therapy in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee, PMF treatment can reduce impairment in activities of daily life and improve knee function.

NeuroRehabilitation 2002;17(1):63-7
Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the treatment of pain in patients with lumbar radiculopathy or the whiplash syndrome.
Thuile Ch, Walzl M.
International Society of Energy Medicine, Vienna, Austria.

NeuroRehabilitation 2002;17(1):9-22
Physical mechanisms in neuroelectromagnetic therapies.
Liboff AR, Jenrow KA.
Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309, USA.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD003523.
Electromagnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
Hulme J, Robinson V, DeBie R, Wells G, Judd M, Tugwell P.
Cochrane Collaborating Center, Center for Global Health, Institute of Population Health - University of Ottawa, 1 Stewart Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1N 6N5.

J Med Eng Technol. 2002 Nov-Dec;26(6):253-8.
Comparison between the analgesic and therapeutic effects of a musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF) and those of a 100 Hz electromagnetic field: blind experiment on patients suffering from cervical spondylosis or shoulder periarthritis.
Rigato M, Battisti E, Fortunato M, Giordano N.
Department of Physics, Section of Medical Physics University of Sienna, Italy

Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002 Sep;134(3):248-50.
Effect of bioresonance therapy on antioxidant system in lymphocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Islamov BI, Balabanova RM, Funtikov VA, Gotovskii YV, Meizerov EE.
Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia.
Changes in the lymphocyte antioxidant system indicate that bioresonance therapy activates nonspecific protective mechanisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002 Aug 30;114(15-16):678-84
Pulsed magnetic field therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee--a double-blind sham-controlled trial.
Nicolakis P, Kollmitzer J, Crevenna R, Bittner C, Erdogmus CB, Nicolakis J.
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, AKH Wien, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Bioelectromagnetics. 2002 Jul;23(5):398-405.
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on bone tissue like formation are dependent on the maturation stages of the osteoblasts.
Diniz P, Shomura K, Soejima K, Ito G.
Department of Orthodontics, Kagoshima University Dental School, Kagoshima, Japan.

Altern Ther Health Med 2001 Sep-Oct;7(5):54-64, 66-9
Low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritic knees: a double-blind clinical study.
Jacobson JI, Gorman R, Yamanashi WS, Saxena BB, Clayton L.
Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biophysical Research

JOrthop Res 2002 Sep;20(5):1106-14
Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on late-phase osteotomy gap healing in a canine tibial model.
Inoue N, Ohnishi I, Chen D, Deitz LW, Schwardt JD, Chao EY.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA.

Altern Ther Health Med 2002 Jul-Aug;8(4):50-5
Effects of static magnets on chronic knee pain and physical function: a double-blind study.
Hinman MR, Ford J, Heyl H.
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

J Orthop Res 2002 Jul;20(4):756-63
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteointegration of hydroxyapatite implants in cancellous bone: a morphologic and microstructural in vivo study.
Fini M, Cadossi R, Cane V, Cavani F, Giavaresi G, Krajewski A, Martini L, Aldini NN, Ravaglioli A, Rimondini L, Torricelli P, Giardino R.

Bioelectromagnetics 2002 Jul;23(5):398-405
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on bone tissue like formation are dependent on the maturation stages of the osteoblasts.
Diniz P, Shomura K, Soejima K, Ito G.
Department of Orthodontics, Kagoshima University Dental School, Kagoshima, Japan.

Calcif Tissue Int 2002 Jun;70(6):496-502
In vivo and in vitro effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field on net calcium flux in rat calvarial bone.
Spadaro JA, Bergstrom WH.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA.

Curr Med Res Opin 2001;17(3):190-6
Magnetic pulse treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Pipitone N, Scott DL.
Rheumatology Department, King's College Hospital (Dulwich), London, UK.

Hawaii Med J 2001 Nov;60(11):288, 300
The use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee preliminary report.
Danao-Camara T, Tabrah FL.
Division of Internal Medicine Subspecialities, Straub Clinic & Hospital, USA.

Can J Psychiatry 2001 Oct;46(8):720-7
Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of mood disorder: a review and comparison with electroconvulsive therapy.
Hasey G.
Regional Mood Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Psychol Med 2001 Oct;31(7):1141-6
Transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression and other psychiatric disorders.
McNamara B, Ray JL, Arthurs OJ, Boniface S.
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge.

Adv Ther 2001 Jan-Feb;18(1):12-20
Outcomes after posterolateral lumbar fusion with instrumentation in patients treated with adjunctive pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation.
Bose B.
Medical Center of Delaware, Newark, USA.

J Nippon Med Sch 2000 Jun;67(3):198-201
A case of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia treated with pulsing electromagnetic fields. 17-year follow-up.
Ito H, Shirai Y, Gembun Y.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

Bioelectromagnetics 2000 May;21(4):272-86
Directed and enhanced neurite growth with pulsed magnetic field stimulation.
Macias MY, Battocletti JH, Sutton CH, Pintar FA, Maiman DJ.
Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2000 Apr;105(4):1371-4
Effects of pulsed magnetic energy on a microsurgically transferred vessel.
Roland D, Ferder M, Kothuru R, Faierman T, Strauch B.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Adv Ther 2000 Mar-Apr;17(2):57-67
Spine fusion for discogenic low back pain: outcomes in patients treated with or without pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation.
Marks RA.
Richardson Orthopaedic Surgery, Texas 75080, USA.

Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000 Feb;26(1):51-62, viii
Electromagnetic fields and magnets. Investigational treatment for musculoskeletal disorders.
Trock DH.
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

 J Neurotrauma. 1999 Jul;16(7):639-57.Links
An imposed oscillating electrical field improves the recovery of function in neurologically complete paraplegic dogs.
Borgens RB, Toombs JP, Breur G, Widmer WR, Waters D, Harbath AM, March P, Adams LG.
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1999 Apr;25(1):6-10
Pulsed electromagnetic fields for the treatment of bone fractures.
Satter Syed A, Islam MS, Rabbani KS, Talukder MS.
Industrial Physics Division, BCSIR Laboratories, Dhaka.

J Hand Surg [Br] 1999 Feb;24(1):56-8
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on flexor tendon healing in chickens.
Robotti E, Zimbler AG, Kenna D, Grossman JA.
Miami Children's Hospital, USA.

J Neurosci Res 1999 Jan 15;55(2):230-7
Electromagnetic fields influence NGF activity and levels following sciatic nerve transection.
Longo FM, Yang T, Hamilton S, Hyde JF, Walker J, Jennes L, Stach R, Sisken BF.
Department of Neurology, UCSF/VAMC, San Francisco, California, USA.

J Indian Med Assoc 1998 Sep;96(9):272-5
A study of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy with respect to serological grouping in rheumatoid arthritis.
Ganguly KS, Sarkar AK, Datta AK, Rakshit A.
National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH), Calcutta.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997 Apr;78(4):399-404
Pulsed magnetic and electromagnetic fields in experimental achilles tendonitis in the rat: a prospective randomized study.
Lee EW, Maffulli N, Li CK, Chan KM.
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.

Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg 1997;12(1):43-53
Effects of static magnetic and pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone healing.
Darendeliler MA, Darendeliler A, Sinclair PM.
Discipline of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Australia.

Medicina (B Aires) 1996;56(1):41-4
[Effect of magnetic fields on skin wound healing. Experimental study]
[Article in Spanish]
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Merlo A.
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires.

J Burn Care Rehabil 1996 Nov-Dec;17(6 Pt 1):528-31
Pulsed electromagnetic fields in experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats.
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Mino J, Merlo A, Benaim F.
Department of Postgraduate Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, Universidad del Salvador and Fundacion del Quemado.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997 Apr;78(4):399-404
Pulsed magnetic and electromagnetic fields in experimental achilles tendonitis in the rat: a prospective randomized study.
Lee EW, Maffulli N, Li CK, Chan KM.
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.

Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg 1997;12(1):43-53
Effects of static magnetic and pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone healing.
Darendeliler MA, Darendeliler A, Sinclair PM.
Discipline of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Australia.

Medicina (B Aires) 1996;56(1):41-4
[Effect of magnetic fields on skin wound healing. Experimental study]
[Article in Spanish]
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Merlo A.
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires.

J Burn Care Rehabil 1996 Nov-Dec;17(6 Pt 1):528-31
Pulsed electromagnetic fields in experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats.
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Mino J, Merlo A, Benaim F.
Department of Postgraduate Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, Universidad del Salvador and Fundacion del Quemado.

Clin Rheumatol 1996 Jul;15(4):325-8
Therapy with pulsed electromagnetic fields in aseptic loosening of total hip protheses: a prospective study.
Konrad K, Sevcic K, Foldes K, Piroska E, Molnar E.
Orszagos Reumatologiai es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapes, Hungary.

J Burn Care Rehabil 1996 Nov-Dec;17(6 Pt 1):528-31
Pulsed electromagnetic fields in experimental cutaneous wound healing in rats.
Patino O, Grana D, Bolgiani A, Prezzavento G, Mino J, Merlo A, Benaim F.
Department of Postgraduate Reconstructive and Plastic

Foot Ankle Int 1994 Oct;15(10):552-6
Treatment of delayed unions and nonunions of the proximal fifth metatarsal with pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Holmes GB Jr.
University Orthopaedics, Rush Medical School, Chicago, Illinois.

Rheumatol 1994 Oct;21(10):1903-11
The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee and cervical spine. Report of randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials.
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Markoll R.
Department of Medicine, Danbury Hospital, CT.

Exp Neurol 1994 Feb;125(2):302-5
Enhancement of functional recovery following a crush lesion to the rat sciatic nerve by exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Walker JL, Evans JM, Resig P, Guarnieri S, Meade P, Sisken BS.
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Crippled Children, Lexington.

Bioelectromagnetics 1993;14(4):353-9
Pretreatment of rats with pulsed electromagnetic fields enhances regeneration of the sciatic nerve.
Kanje M, Rusovan A, Sisken B, Lundborg G.
Department of Animal Physiology, University of Lund, Sweden.

J Cell Biochem 1993 Apr;51(4):387-93
Beneficial effects of electromagnetic fields.
Bassett CA.
Bioelectric Research Center, Columbia University, Riverdale, New York 10463.

J Rheumatol 1993 Mar;20(3):456-60
A double-blind trial of the clinical effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in osteoarthritis.
Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Dyer RH Jr, Fielding LP, Miner WK, Markoll R.
Department of Medicine (Rheumatology), Danbury Hospital, CT 06810.

Plast Reconstr Surg 1991 Jan;87(1):122-9
A multivariate approach to the treatment of peripheral nerve transection injury: the role of electromagnetic field therapy.
Zienowicz RJ, Thomas BA, Kurtz WH, Orgel MG.
University of Massachusetts Medical School, Berkshire Medical Center, Pittsfield.

J Orthop Res 1990 Mar;8(2):276-82
Effect of low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields on skin ulcers of venous origin in humans: a double-blind study.
Ieran M, Zaffuto S, Bagnacani M, Annovi M, Moratti A, Cadossi R.
Department of Medical Angiology, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

J Bone Miner Res 1990 May;5(5):437-42
Bone density changes in osteoporosis-prone women exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs).
Tabrah F, Hoffmeier M, Gilbert F Jr, Batkin S, Bassett CA.
University of Hawaii School of Medicine, Straub Clinic and Hospital, Honolulu.

Biochim Biophys Acta 1989 Jun 26;982(1):9-14
Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on rat skin metabolism.
De Loecker W, Delport PH, Cheng N.
Afdeling Biochemie, Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven, Belgium.

Brain Res 1989 Apr 24;485(2):309-16
Stimulation of rat sciatic nerve regeneration with pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sisken BF, Kanje M, Lundborg G, Herbst E, Kurtz W.
Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506.

Bioelectromagnetics 1988;9(1):53-62
Effects of pulsed extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields on skin wounds in the rat.
Ottani V, De Pasquale V, Govoni P, Franchi M, Zaniol P, Ruggeri A.
Istituto di Anatomia Umana Normale, Bologna, Italy.

J UOEH 1988 Mar 1;10(1):31-45
The effect of long-term pulsing electromagnetic field stimulation on experimental osteoporosis of rats.
Mishima S.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.

J Hand Surg [Br] 1984 Jun;9(2):105-12
An experimental study of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (Diapulse) on nerve repair.
Raji AM.

Clin Orthop 1983 Dec;(181):283-90
Effect of weak, pulsing electromagnetic fields on neural regeneration in the rat.
Ito H, Bassett CA.

J Bone Joint Surg Br 1983 Aug;65(4):478-92
Effects of high-peak pulsed electromagnetic field on the degeneration and regeneration of the common peroneal nerve in rats.
Raji AR, Bowden RE

Congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia: treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields.
Kort JS, Schink MM, Mitchell SN, Bassett CA.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982 May;(165):124-37.

Congenital "pseudarthroses" of the tibia: treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields.
Bassett CA, Caulo N, Kort J.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981 Jan-Feb;(154):136-48.
End of Bone and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy bibliography